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English Forum And who is better in speech than one who invites to Allah and does righteousness and says, "Indeed, I am of the Muslims.

تمنع جميع الحوارات السياسيه فى المنتدى مهما كان نوعها سواء مدح أو ذم ,,, ومنع طرح المواضيع الخلافيه الموجوده على الساحه العربيه الان مهما كان نوعها ومن تخالف هذا القرار للإداره حق التصرف بما تراه مناسب ونسأل الله أن يسدد خطانا جميعا اللهم آآمين الحوارات السياسيه

الدفاع عن السنة The defence of the Sunnah

Episode 1: The defence of the Sunnah 1/2 Introduction Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, and peace and blessings be upon the leader of

   
أدوات الموضوع انواع عرض الموضوع

رحمك الله يا سمية

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شمائل غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور شمائل


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المنتدى : English Forum
الدفاع عن السنة The defence of the Sunnah
قديم بتاريخ : 10-07-2012 الساعة : 12:49 AM

Episode 1: The defence of the Sunnah 1/2


Introduction

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, and peace and blessings be upon the leader of educators and the head of those whose faces and feet are white (from the effect of ablution); our Prophet Mohammed, and upon his family and all of his Companions.

In what is to follow:

Allah – Exalted in Highness – has put the Sunnah of His Prophet - peace be upon him – at a paramount status, and uppermost position, as He entrusted to him - peace be upon him - with the duty of mission, the function of elucidation, so the Almighty said: ((and We have sent down unto you the Message; that you may explain clearly to men what is sent for them ...)) [An-Nahl: 44]. And ‘elucidation’ is a generic term for meanings with combined roots and ramified branches:

One of them is: the elucidation of the same revelation by its manifestation through his tongue after it had been hidden.

The second one: the elucidation of its meaning and its interpretation to whoever had a need for that. He has also shown that the wrong-doing mentioned in His saying, Exalted He be: ((and confuse not their beliefs with wrong)) [Al An’am: 82], is false worship (1).

The third one: his actual elucidation, such as when he has elucidated prayer times to the asking person through his action (2).

The fourth: elucidation of what he has been asked about, concerning the provisions that are not in the Quran. The Quran then descends with their elucidation. Such as when he had been asked about the slandering of the spouse, the Quran came with the Li’aan (a solemn oath used in cases of unfaithfulness, and which attract a curse if untrue) and its equivalents (3).

The fifth: elucidation of what he has been asked about via inspiration, even though it is not Quran, such as when he had been asked about a man who entered the state of ritual Ihram in a cloak heavily embalmed with a saffron-based scent. Revelation came that he takes his cloak off and removes the effect of the scent (4).

The sixth: his elucidation of the provisions with the Sunnah as inception without question, such as when he prohibited donkey meats for them (5) and fixed term marriages (6).

The seventh: his elucidation to the people the permissibility of the thing by doing it himself, and not forbidding them to follow his example.

The eighth: his elucidation of the permissibility of the thing by approving it for them doing it while he is observing it, or teaching them that they do it.

The ninth: his elucidation of the permissibility of the thing spontaneously by keeping silent from prohibiting it, even though he does not authorize it verbally.

The tenth: that he arbitrates the Quran in affirming something, prohibiting it or permitting it, and formulates for that provision a set of conditions, impediments, restrictions, specific times, circumstances and particularities. The Lord –Exalted in Highness – then confers upon His Messenger its elucidation; such as His saying, Exalted He be: ((except for these, all others are lawful)) [An Nisa’ 24].

The allowance depends on the conditions of marriage, the absence of impediments, the time it is due and the suitability of the situation whereby it is lawful; so the Sunnah came with the elucidation of all that.

Everything he - peace be upon him - legislated for the nation is an elucidation from his part on behalf of Allah that this is his law and his religion, and there is no difference between what he reports from Him of rehearsed utterances and between His revelation, which is the equivalent of His words in terms of the obligation in following, and the contravention of the former is like the contravention of the latter (7).



(1) The Sahih of Bukhari: (32), and the Sahih of Muslim: (327).

(2) The Sahih of Muslim: (613).

(3) The Sahih of Bukhari: (4745).

(4) The Sahih of Bukhari: (1789), and the Sahih of Muslim: (1180).

(5) Abu Dawood: (4604), At-Tirmidhi: (2663), Ibn Hibbaan: (12), authenticated by Al-Haakim: (1/109), and Adh-Dhahabi approved it.

(6) The Sahih of Bukhari: (4216), and the Sahih of Muslim: (1407).

(7) I’laam Al-Muwaqqi’een: (4/97-104).



hg]thu uk hgskm The defence of the Sunnah sunnah





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كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-07-2012 الساعة : 12:52 AM

Episode 2: The defence of the Sunnah 2/2

If that was the status of the Sunnah and this is its importance, its denial, violation, tampering with it, doubting its authenticity, feigning of lies around it, which is what the deviant parties sought in the past, and the deviants seek latterly. All of that is considered a very serious matter, as that has the consequence of opening doors of evil, which tear down the structure of Islam, and that is for the following reasons:

Firstly: that the legal provisions of fundamental knowledge "beliefs", their elucidation and details depend on the Sunnah after the Quran and with it. Denial of the Prophetic Sunnah threatens doctrines with deficiency and ambiguity. It prejudices that which concerns divinities, prophecies, aural traditions and other that that from the issues of faith. Does a religion get established on deficient and ambiguous doctrines?!

Secondly: the elimination of the principles of practical legal provisions, "the principles of Islamic jurisprudence"; because this science addresses the evidence upon which provisions are formulated. Fundamentalists have agreed, by consensus, that the Sunnah is the second source of Islamic legislation, and based on this, denial of the Sunnah makes the Islamic jurisprudence at the mercy of the winds; due to it not being based on evidence and lacking foundations.

Thirdly: the disintegration of the applied branches of jurisprudence "ideological and comparative" because the bulk of jurisprudential issues and facts are based on the Sunnah of the Prophet, either through elucidation and clarification; such as the times, numbers and modalities of the prescribed prayers, or independently, such as expiation for one who spoils the fast of Ramadan, and the sentences of one who drinks intoxicants and the apostate, and manners, behaviour, virtuous deeds and so on.

Fourthly: The distortion of the sciences of the Holy Quran, due to it being based, in many of its cases, on the prophetic Sunnah, and the threat of the science of exegesis, due to it being based, in most of what it is presented with, on the prophetic Sunnah (1).

Thus, the denial of the Sunnah paves the way for doubting the Quran itself, and disrupts the verses that urge and incite to follow His Messenger - peace be upon him - and to take him as a role model, to arbitrate him, to accept his ruling, to favour obedience to him over the obedience to anyone else, so that the nation is left without a legislation of clear features and strong designation; as the principles of legislation and its branches have been exposed to fabrication and boldness.

The slur against the prophetic Sunnah is destruction to Islam in its beliefs, acts of worship, systems, morals, destruction to its unity and a cause of the Muslims lagging behind in the course of civilization.

Professor Mohammed Asad says: "The Sunnah had been a key to understanding the Islamic Renaissance since more than thirteen centuries, so why can’t it be the key to understanding our present disintegration?. Acting according to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – is an action to preserve the entity of Islam and its advancement, and forsaking the Sunnah is the dissolution of Islam.

The Sunnah had been the steel frame upon which the edifice of Islam was established, and if you remove the structure of a building, would you be astonished (i.e. surprised) that the building collapses as if it is a house of cards? (2).

This is what the enemies of Islam are planning for, whether those showing hostility to it, the conspirators against it, or those wearing its cloak in deception and falsehood. But even if they endeavour what they can, they will not reach their desired goal, and sought purpose, but will remain reeling in purposeless confusion in overcast mazes with numerous sprains, difficult to exit, until they die with rage, anguish and hatred; because Allah - the Almighty – Has assigned His care to protect His religion from those who seek to harm it, and to protect its adherents from all those who seek them with evil, as indicated by His saying, the Almighty: ((Fain would they extinguish Allah's light with their mouths, but Allah will not allow but that His light should be perfected, even though the unbelievers may detest (it). It is He Who has sent His Apostle with guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion, even though the Pagans may detest (it).)) [At-Taubah: 32-33].

The concern of the bands of transgression - old and new - and their attempts to undermine the pure Sunnah are but like the concern for which Al A’sha said:

Like the one who butted a rock one day to weaken it

He did not hurt it, and weakened the horn of the Ibex

They are, by their transgression, fabrication, abuse, falsification and false pretences, but wronging themselves and their religion: ((And soon will the unjust assailants know what vicissitudes their affairs will take!)) [Ash-Shu’ara’: 227].

In this oratory, we will take a pause by their fabrications and lies. We will expose their misconceptions and fabrications, refuting them, rebutting them, so that the truth is revealed and falsehood is exposed, and from Allah we draw help and we ask Him success. ((and my success can come but from Allah. In Him I trust, and unto Him I turn)).



(1) The prophetic Sunnah - Dr. Ahmad Karima, P. 27, 28.

(2) Islam at the Crossroads, p. 87.

alssunnahnet.com




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كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-07-2012 الساعة : 12:57 AM

Episode 3: A pause with the false allegations of the orientalists and the illusions of the occidentalists (1-4)


We presented in the chapter pertaining to (the chronicling of the Sunnah) in this site to define the Sunnah in language and terminology, and we have mentioned its use in the Holy Quran, and its concept in the Sunnah and with the predecessor of the nation, and urged beforehand on the need to understand the differences between the linguistic meanings and the conventional meanings; because the lack of understanding of that and ignorance of it lands the doer in a great deal of confusion and considerable turmoil, and this is what happened to the term Sunnah. We see that the enemies of Islam and hallowed Sunnah have exploited these differences hideously, which is predictive of their deep hatred against Islam and the Muslims. In their attack on the pure Sunnah, they focus on some of its linguistic or conventional meanings neglecting - sometimes out of ignorance, and some other times knowingly- the remainder of its conventional meanings; in order to reach their goal and purpose from questioning its probativeness and not act according to it, including their focus on the meaning of the Sunnah in the terminology of the jurists, which is not an obligation, such that the one who does it is complimented and the one who abandons it is not disparaged(1).

This generalization in the definition of the Sunnah is utter misguidance(2); for there is in it a dissuasion of the word from its terminological meaning with the orators and scholars of fundamentals, and that it is a source of legislation, independent and inseparable from the Holy Quran in supportive arguments, and that the five mandatory provisions take place in it, as they do in the Holy Quran exactly(3).

And among the linguistic meanings, which the enemies of Islam focus on in their definition of the Sunnah; its meaning which came in the sense of mode and conduct, whether good it was or bad, and they express that meaning as habit and custom as the orientalist (Goldziher)(4) said: (Sunnah is the synthesis of hereditary mores and traditions in the pagan Arab community; then transmitted to Islam, so it underwent a radical change when transmitted. Then the Muslims established from the most common of doctrines, words, actions and habits, for the oldest of generations of Muslim a new Sunnah)(5). He was succeeded on that by all those who came after him from the orientalists(6).

Echoing these words, Dr. Ali Hasan Abd Al-Qaadir, in his book(7) (An overview of the history of Islamic jurisprudence), he said: (The meaning of Sunnah was pre-existent in the Arab communities in the past, and refers to the correct way in life for the individual and the group. The Muslims did not invent this meaning, but was already known in the pre-Islamic era. They used to call that Sunnah; these Arabic traditions and what is consistent with ancestral customs. This meaning has remained in Islam in the old schools in the Hijaz, and in Iraq as well, in this general sense; meaning the existing activity and the consensual affairs in Islamic circles, and the model example of correct conduct without that being restricted to the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him. Finally, this meaning was set, and the Sunnah was made exclusive to the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him. This definition goes back to the late second century AH, on account of the way of Imam Shaafi'i, with which he went against the old terminology)(8).

Yes, the term Sunnah and its meaning were known in the language of the Arabs before Islam, and the Muslims have neither invented this word nor its meaning. Nevertheless, the matter is not as the orientalists and Dr. Ali Hasan Abd Al-Qaadir alleged, in that the meaning of Sunnah in the beginning of Islam is the pagan habit and custom(9), or that it is just the correct way. But rather includes the correct way and the incorrect one, according to the view of the majority of linguists. The Holy Quran, the prophetic Hadiths and the pre-Islamic poetry support them in appellation, which has been previously elucidated.



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(1) Al Bahr Al Muheet by Az-Zarkashi 1/284, and Irshaad Al Fuhoul by Shawakaani 1/155, and the Principles of Jurisprudence by Sheikh Mohammed Al-Khodhari 54, and the Principles of Jurisprudence by Sheikh Abdul Wahaab Khallaaf p. 111.

(2) See: the generalization of Mahmoud Abu-Rayah for that, in ‘Lights on the Sunnah’ p. 38.

(3) See: Regulations of narration with the orators. pp.25, 26, abridged.

(4) Goldziher: a Hungarian Jewish orientalist. He travelled in Syria, Palestine and Egypt, and accompanied some of Al Azhar’s scholars. He has got compilations in German, English and French, some of which has been translated into Arabic. Dr. As-Sibaa’i said:" he was known for his hostility towards Islam and by the dangerousness of his writings about it, and from the editors of the Encyclopaedia of Islamic". He wrote about the Quran and the Hadith. Among his books: History of the schools of Islamic Exegesis," and "Doctrine and Law in Islam," and "The Scandals of the Zahiris", and others. He died in 1921. He has got a translation in: Al A’laam by Az-Zarkali 1/284, and Orientalism by Dr. As-Sibaa’i 31-32, and ‘The Views of the Orientalists on the Quran and its Interpretation’ by Dr. Omar Ibrahim 1/161-162.

(5) Doctrine and Law in Islam, p. 49, 251.

(6) The Encyclopaedia of Islam 7/330, see: Studies in the Hadith by Dr. Al A’dhami 1/5-11, and ‘The Methodology of Collection of the Sunnah and the Collection of the Gospels’ by Dr ‘Aziah Ali Taha. P. 62,122,123.

(7) Ali Hasan Abd Al-Qaadir: Professor in the history of Islamic legislation, holder of an international award in philosophy from Germany, and the metaphor from the Faculty of Theology in the history department, dean of the Faculty of Sharia Al-Azhar Al-Sharif formerly. Among his works: ‘An Overview of the History of Islamic Jurisprudence’

(8) An Overview of the History of Islamic Jurisprudence, p. 122 123.

(9) It would be right to define the Sunnah as habit and custom, but what is meant by habit in this case is the habit of the prophet - peace be upon him – i.e. what he had done, endorsed, or had observed but did not object to, which is in this case from the religion. It is also given to the practical legacy of the life of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them – and does not mean habit and custom prevailing during the pre-Islamic era, as alluded by the statement of Goldziher and those who say as he did. See: the probativeness of the Sunnah by Dr. Abdul -Ghani Abdul-Khaaliq P.49-51, and the Doorway to the Prophetic Sunnah by our respected professor, Dr. Abdul-Mahdi Abdul Qaadir, p. 25-26.




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كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-07-2012 الساعة : 01:10 AM

Episode 4: A pause with the false allegations of the orientalists and the illusions of the occidentalists (2-4)



The use by the Holy Quran and the hallowed Sunnah of the word Sunnah, in the linguistic sense, does not mean that the linguistic meaning (the way), (the practice) or (the habit) is what is meant, in the law, by Sunnah. This word has shifted from its linguistic meaning to the conventional meaning (Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - encompassing his utterances, actions, endorsements, physical and moral attributes...), and it is in this sense a legislative source, inseparable from the Holy Quran, one does not get dissociated from the other.

This conventional meaning for the word Sunnah was set and known in the beginning of Islam, while the Prophet - peace be upon him- was among his companions - may Allah be pleased with them - and the matter is not as alleged by Dr. Ali Hasan Abd Al-Qaadir in succession to the orientalists, that this conventional meaning for the Sunnah was set in the late second century AH.

Among the linguistic meanings, which the enemies of Islam focus on in their definition of the Sunnah, its meaning contained in the sense way. Then they define the Sunnah as: the practical process, or the practical Sunnah. As to his words, accounts and qualities - peace be upon him – they are not of the Sunnah, and setting the term Hadith or Sunnah on that is, in their view, but a terminological novelty from the orators, unbeknown to the language, and is not used in its literature. Thus alleged Mahmoud Abu Rayah(1) in his book (Lights on the Mohammedan Sunnah)(2) in succession to Dr. Tawfeeq Sidqi(3).

In that, too, the engineer Dr. Mohamed Shahrour(4) says in his book (The Book and the Quran: A Contemporary Reading): (What has been termed the Prophetic Sunnah is but the life of the Prophet - peace be upon him - as a prophet and a human being, who lived his life in reality, even at the heart of it, and not in a world of illusion).

Elsewhere he says: (from here comes the wrong definition, in our view, of the Prophetic Sunnah that it is all that which was issued by the Prophet - peace be upon him – from utterance, action, command, forbiddance or endorsement. Knowing that this definition for the Sunnah is not that of the Prophet - peace be upon him - himself, and is therefore subject to discussion and give and take. This definition was a cause in the mummification of Islam, knowing that the Prophet - peace be upon him - and his Companions did not define the Sunnah in this way, and the actions of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab confirm this)(5).

__________________________________________________ _______





(1) Mahmoud Abu-Rayah: an Egyptian writer, who was affiliated to Al Azhar in his early youth. When he moved to the secondary Azhar stage, he failed to pass more than once. He worked as corrector of typographic errors at a newspaper in his hometown, then a clerk at the Municipality until he was made to retire. Among his collections, in which he slandered the Sunnah and the Companions: ‘Lights on the Sunnah’ and ‘The Tale of the Mohammedan Discourse’, and ‘Sheikh Almudheirah (Abu Hurayrah)’. See: ‘The Sunnah and its Stance in Legislation’ by Dr. As-Sibaa’i p. 466.

(2) Lights on the Sunnah, p. 39.

(3) Dr Tawfeeq Sidqi: He is Dr Mohamed Tawfeeq Sidqi; a physician at the Prison Services in Cairo. He wrote articles in the magazine Al-Manar, entitled "Islam is the Quran alone". He died in 1920. Sheikh Mohammed Rashid Ridha interpreted his work in the magazine Al-Manar, volume 483/21 and subsequent ones. See: the magazine Al-Manar, volume 11/774.

(4) Mohammed Shahrour: A contemporary Syrian writer. He holds a doctorate in engineering from the National University of Ireland in Dublin. His works include: ‘The Book and the Quran: A Contemporary Reading’, and ‘Islam and Belief: A System of Values’, and ‘The State and the Society’.

(5) The Book and the Quran: A Contemporary Reading. p. 546-548.




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كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-07-2012 الساعة : 01:21 AM

Episode 6: A pause with the false allegations of the orientalists and the illusions of the occidentalists (4/4)



In that, too, Ahmed Subhi Mansour(1) says in his book (The Class of Punishment for Apostasy), defining the real Sunnah, by saying: (The Way of Allah the Almighty is the Sunnah of His Messenger, peace be upon him...). Almighty Allah sends down the Law as revelation and the Messenger conveys it and implements it, and the Prophet would be the first of people in obedience and following to the commands of Allah. Almighty Allah commanded the Prophet to say: (I follow but that which is revealed to me) (Al Ahqaf: 9). Belief in the Messenger means belief in all that which descended on him of the Quran, and belief that he followed that revelation and applied it, and he was the first of people to believe it and implement it thereof(2).

Qaasim Ahmad(3) says in his book (Re-evaluation of the Hadith): It is by looking at the use of the words Sunnah and Hadith in the Quran, which gives us interesting information, that we find that the word (Sunnah) refers in the Quran to the order, or the divine law, and to the paradigm of the previous nations which met their fate. The Quran did not indicate that the Sunnah is the comportment of the Prophet, and these two uses are inferred to by the following two verses:

The saying of the Almighty: ((Such has been) the practice (approved) of Allah already in the past: no change will you find in the practice (approved) of Allah) (Al Fath: 23). And His saying: (Say to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from Unbelief), their past would be forgiven them; but if they persist, the punishment of those before them is already (a matter of warning for them)) (Al Anfal: 38).

The term "Hadith" has been used in the Quran with the meaning "news", "narratives", "message" and "thing". It has been mentioned thirty-six times in different linguistic placements, none of which refers to what is known as the prophetic Hadith. In contrast, it has been mentioned in ten placements from manifest verses referring to the Quran and strongly excluding any discourse besides the Quran, of which these verses: (Allah has revealed the most beautiful Message in the form of a Book, consistent with itself) (Az Zumar: 23), (But there are, among men, those who purchase idle tales, without knowledge (or meaning), to mislead (men) from the Path of Allah and throw ridicule (on the Path): for such there will be a Humiliating Penalty) (Luqman: 6)(4).

This is in addition to what the enemies of the Sunnah alleged in their definition of the Sunnah that it is the practical process, the practical Sunnah, or that it is the Way of Allah Almighty. And that the definition of the Sunnah is that it is: (all that which is issued by the Prophet - peace be upon him – from utterance, action, endorsement, or character ....), a terminology introduced by the orators and was not known to the Prophet - peace be upon him - or his Companions – may Allah be pleased with them – even though this definition has been a reason in the mummification of Islam. This false assertion is indicative of what I have already mentioned, that these enemies are mingling meanings in the language, with those in the terminology, and neither care about their cognition, nor their explanation, either out of ignorance, or knowingly with the intention to deceive the reader and mislead him, and cause him to call in question the probativeness of the Sunnah, and its scholars whom the Lord of Honour and Power destined to safeguard it from alteration and change, wholly and accurately, as He destined to His mighty scripture, those that safeguard it among the unrivalled scholars.

Perhaps it has become clear - previously - to the honourable reader that the Sunnah of the Prophet with its definition, which is known to orators, fundamentalists and jurists, was intentional from the Prophet - peace be upon him - and known to the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them all - and that this definition for the hallowed Sunnah has been a reason for the glory of Islam and Muslims, and not for its mummification as the enemies of Islam allege. It has also become clear that the term Sunnah and the term Hadith were synonymous during the period of the blessed prophecy and the time of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them – then those who came after them from amongst the followers and their followers - may Allah be pleased with them - and accordingly scholars of the consistent law, contrary to the enemies of Islam, the pretenders: that the term Sunnah is not the same as the term Hadith, and that they must be distinctive from each other(5).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(1) Ahmed Sobhi Mansour: graduated from Al Azhar and got an international award in history from the University. He repudiated the Sunnah, so the University cleared itself of him. He travelled to America and worked with the divinator Rashad Khalifa, lecturing at the American University in Cairo, Director of the gallery Ibn Khaldun at Moqattam. Among his compilations: ‘Prophets in the Quran’, ‘The Disobedient Muslim’, ‘The Torment of the Grave and the Bald Snake’ and ‘Why the Quran?’, under the pseudonym Abdullah Al-Khalifa. See his story with Rashad Khalifa in the two books: ‘Musaylimah at the Tucson Mosque’, and ‘Defence of the Sunnah’, the first part of the series "Islam and the Continuation of the Plot" both of which are by the honourable Professor. Dr. Taha Hbaishi.

(2) The Class of Punishment for Apostasy, p. 40.

(3) Qaasim Ahmad: a contemporary Malaysian writer and President of the Malaysian Socialist Party - formerly - author of: ‘Re-evaluation of the Hadith’, in which he denied the probativeness of the Sunnah.

(4) See: ‘Re-evaluation of the Hadith’, p. 77, 78, and his infrence to this verse that the term Hadith is the Quran is an obsolete and void inference. This (idle talk) here is the fairytales and myths, see: ‘Interpretation of the Holy Quran’ by Ibn Katheer 3/441.

(5) See: The Sunnah in the writings of the enemies of Islam (1/24-30), abridged.




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كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-07-2012 الساعة : 01:29 AM

Episode 7: Suspicion around the appellation and the response to it 1/2



It goes without saying when we decide: that the terms (Sunnah) and (Hadith) are Arabic, whereas among the enemies of Islam who denied this axiom was Goldziher, when he once claimed that the word (Sunnah) was taken from the Hebrew (Mishnah), he said: (Even in Islam, this idea took a place too, I mean taking a sacred law behind the Quran or an oral one as is the case with the Jews) (1).

Then said once again: it is rather a pagan term in origin, which Islam adopted and excerpted, and pursued him on that from his creed: Schacht and Margolioth, as quoted from them by Dr Mohammed Al A’dhami in his book (Studies in the Prophetic Hadith) (2).

And followed the Orientalists on that, Kasim Ahmad, when he said: (what Muslims should be aware of is the very big similarity between this opinion and the old opinion of the Jews about the written and oral revelations. The Jewish Talmud, which includes the Mishnah and the Gemara; the two resemble the Islamic Hadith and Sunnah. They are a set of oral teachings belonging to rabbis and senior Jewish scholars, the basis of their interpretation to their holy book and their explication to it over a long period, by the tongue of the Jewish scholar Yehuda Goldin (3).

The Orientalist Alfred Guillaume also claimed in his book (The Hadith in Islam): that the term (Hadith) is derived from the Hebrew word with the Jews (Hadash), which means the new, the news, or the stories (4).

The purpose for this misconception is intended to deny that the two terms are Arabic.

This false suspicion has been refuted by Professor Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout in his book (Islam: Doctrine and Law), where he negated that the term Sunnah be taken from the Hebrew (5).

Dr. Mohamed Al-A’dhami also refuted in his book (Studies in the Prophetic Hadith) the false claim of Goldziher; that it is a pagan term in origin, but Islam adopted and excerpted it (6).

This suspicion was mentioned and refuted by Dr. Raouf Chalabi in his book (The Prophetic Sunnah between Confirmation by the Graspers and Rejection by the Ignorants), he said: it is the very nature of life that goodness is not safe from evil, that justice is not safe from injustice, and Satan had destined elements which slander against Islam and its sources. Some researchers had alleged that the designation with the term Sunnah is taken by Muslims from the Hebrew word (Mishnah), that is given in Jewish terminology to the set of Jewish narrations, which are considered, in their opinion, the main reference in learning the provisions of the Torah. It is also considered as an explication and exegesis for it, then the Muslims arabicized it to the word (Sunnah). The Jews allege that the Muslims gave it - following Arabicization – as a proper term to designate the set of prophetic narrations in return for their use of the word (Mishnah) to designate the set of Jewish accounts.

----------------------------------------

1. Doctrine and Law in Islam, p. 49.

2. Studies in the Prophetic Hadith, 1: 5, 6.

3. Re-evaluation of the Hadith p. 78, 79.

4. Quoted from: Methodology of collection of the Sunnah, by Dr. Aziah Ali Taha, p. 62.

5. Islam: Doctrine and Law, p. 492 493.

6. Studies in the Prophetic Hadith, 1: 5 -11.




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كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-07-2012 الساعة : 01:44 AM

Episode 8: Suspicion around the appellation and the response to it 2/2

The answer is:

The eminent Professor Dr. Raouf Chalabi: the objection of the Jews and those who followed them over the terms (Sunnah) and (Hadith) is summarized in two points:

1- That Muslims Arabicized it from the words (Mishnah) and (Hadash).

2- That Muslims gave it as a proper term to designate the set of prophetic narrations in return for what the Jews did by giving the term (Mishnah) to designate the set of Jewish accounts that explain the Torah to them, which is considered as the main source in learning the provisions.

In response to the first point: the inquisitive and honest mind does not accept the claim of the Jews and those who followed their path, that the early Arab Muslims Arabicized (Mishnah) to (Sunnah), or Arabicized (Hadash) to (Hadith).

Firstly: due to the lack of similarity in characters and structure.

Secondly: because the words were reportedly used in Pre-Islamic Poetry, used by our Lord - Almighty - in His Holy Book, and our Prophet - peace be upon him – used them in his noble Statements, as previously mentioned in the linguistic definition of the Sunnah and Hadith, which leaves no scope for the hypothesis into the research concerning the Arabization of the word (Sunnah) from (Mishnah) or (Hadith) from (Hdash).

Therefore, the two terms were not Arabicized by the Muslims from the words (Mishnah and Hadash), but rather took them from the core of their language, their explicit Holy Book and frank Statement of their Prophet - peace be upon him - (1).

Dr Al A’dhami says in response to the claim of paganism of the term: "So, what Goldziher said about the Sunnah being a pagan term used by Islam, is an allegation not based on evidence, and contrary to concrete evidence, and that the use of the Pre-Islamic or the pagans among the Arabs (for a particular word) in its linguistic concept, does not cover it with a particular garment, nor does it turn it into a pagan term, and especially if we look at their different uses for this word. Otherwise, the whole of the Arabic language would have turned into a pagan term, and this cannot be uttered by any sane person "(2).

The same as this statement is said in response to the allegation of Alfred Guillaume that the word (Hadith) is derived from the Hebrew word (Hadash).

In response to the second point: Ibn Qayyim Al Jawziyyah (3) says in “Ighathat Al Lahfaan”: "The word Mishnah means the book written by Jewish scholars at the time of the state of the Babylonians and the Persians, and the state of the Greeks and the Romans, which is the smallest book and is around eight hundred pages in size."

While the Talmud: is the largest book authored by Jewish scholars together with Mishnah, and is about half a mule’s burden in size, due to its bulkiness. Scholars did not compile it all in the scope of one era, but rather compiled it generation after generation. When the later ones among them looked at this compilation, where the more time passes the more they add to it, and that there is in the later addition what contradicts the beginnings of this compilation, they learned that if they do not discontinue the practice and prohibit from adding to it, it would lead to the flaw which cannot be bridged. They discontinued the additions to it, and prohibited from it, and barred scholars from adding to it and supplementing it with anything else, and forbade that anything else be added to it, so it was halted at that lot (4).

So, the Mishnah and the Talmud are authored by Jewish scholars to satisfy their whims, and they attribued it to the Torah and to our master Moses - peace be upon him and upon our Prophet - not so in the prophetic Hadith and pure Sunnah; for they are prophetic narrations revealed from the part of the Lord of Glory, and none of the scholars of Islam has an intervention in any of them, except by preserving them, taking care of them and implementing them, and the author of the Sunnah - peace be upon him - is the one who designated and named all that which emanated from him as utterance, action, or account, etc..., as of his noble Hadith and pure Sunnah.

He is the one - peace be upon him –who said: (Satan has despaired of ever being worshipped in your land. However, he is satisfied to be obeyed in everything else from the deeds that you consider despicable. Therefore beware! O people! I have left among you something which, if you cling to it, you shall never be led astray: the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet, peace be upon him) (5).

From all this, is becomes clear to us that the two words (Sunnah) and (Hadith):

1 - Genuinely Arabic.

2 - That the Holy Quran and the prophetic Sunnah had used them.

3 – That it is the prophet - peace be upon him - who termed the Hadith and the Sunnah, and set them as proper terms on all that which emanated from him as utterance, action or account, etc..., as I have previously mentioned.

Thus expunged from the possibility the assumption that the Muslims derived into Arabic the word (Sunnah) from the word (Mishnah), or (Hadith) from (Hadash), or assuming they are pagan terms, and that there is a big difference between the chandelier of the clear path in Islam, and the muddy soil of the distorters who were cursed on the tongue of their prophets: David and Jesus, the son of Mary; as requital for that they have done (6). End of quote.

__________________________________________________ __

1) The Prophetic Sunnah between Confirmation by the Graspers and Rejection by the Ignorants, p. 32 and subsequent pages, abridged.

2) Studies in the Prophetic Hadith, 1: 7.

3) Ibn Qayyim Al Jawziyyah: he is Mohammed ibn Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub Az-Zar’i Ad-Dimashqi, Abu Abdullah, the Hanbali jurist, fundamentalist, narrator, grammarian, writer, preacher and orator. He has many indexed works, the most popular of which are: “A’laam Al Mauqi’iyeen ‘An Rabbil’aalameen”, “Zaad Al Ma’aad Fi Hadyi Kheiril’ibaad”, and others. He died in 751 AH. He has got a translation in: “Al Bidayah Wan-Nihaayah” of Ibn Katheer 14/234, and “Ad-Durar Al Kaaminah” of Ibn Hajar 3/400-403 No. 1067, and “Shadharaat Adh-Dhahab” 6/168, and “Tabaqaat Al Mufassireen” of Ad-Dawdi 2/93 -97, No. 456, and “Al Waafy Bil-Wafiyyaat” 2/270.

4) Ighaathat Al Lahfaan, 2/323, 324.

5) Narrated by Al Haakim in “Al Mustadrak the Book of Knowledge”, the chapter pertaining to his Sermon - peace be upon him – during the farewell pilgrimage 1/171, 172 No. 318, from the statement of Ibn Abbas - may Allah be pleased with him – and said: in its chain of narration‘Ikrimah and Bukhari expostulated using it, and Ibn Abu Uweys and Muslim expostulated using it, and all of its narrators are agreed upon, and then said: it has got a witness from the Statement of Abu Hurayrah - may Allah be pleased with him - and narrated it in the previous instance, and Adh-Dhahabi agreed with him and said it has a basis in the authentic. End of quote.

6) The Prophetic Sunnah between Confirmation by the Graspers and Rejection by the Ignorants by Dr. Raouf Shalaby, p. 32: 36 quote, and The Sunnah in the writings of the enemies of Islam (1/50-53).




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كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-07-2012 الساعة : 12:23 PM

Episode 9: Refuting the calumny set by Goldziher and those who followed him (1-5)
This calumny adopted by Goldziher and those who followed him is void from several aspects:
The first aspect: (Goldziher) and his student have alleged that the Islamic concept of the Sunnah is a term modified from the old Arabic views, and pre-Islamic heritage; he means that Islam retained some of the matters familiar to the Arabs, anterior to it, following their regulation for them, which is what the Orientalists always mention. Then this is (Gustave Le Bon), who says in his book (The Civilization of the Arabs): (Such like Mohammed, who knew how to select from ancient Arab systems what seemed the most appropriate, then supported it with his religious influence, but the law of Mohammed did not abolish all the customs it substituted) (1).
Goldziher always hits this string in all his Islamic studies: he makes everything Islamic amenable: either to internal factors, such as the jurisprudence of the pre-Islamic people and their customs, or to external factors, such as Judaism, Christianity and Greek mythology.
These customs or traditions, which are retained by Islam, are quite specific. They do not amount to one tenth of the Islamic legislations. Nevertheless, Islam only retained them on one condition, which is that they neither contravene legal evidence, nor one of its fundamental rules.
Dr Zaki Ad-Din Shaaban says: (This is why we find that the wise legislator endorses many of the matters that are familiar to the Arabs before Islam, following their regulation for them, such as selling, mortgaging, leasing, borrowing, oaths, marriage, considering parity between spouses, the imposition of blood money on the killer’s relatives, basis of inheritance and the guardianship in marriage through family-relations, and does not rule out from them but the inappropriate and harmful that are unsuitable, such as usury, gambling, burying female infants alive and denial of women's inheritance) (2).
Dr. Sassi Al Haj presented some of the provisions, which had existed within the Arabs previously, and Islam retained or revoked, then said: (These are examples concerning worship and transactions found in pre-Islam, and Islam approved some of them and revoked some others. From this endorsement, orientalists reckoned that the Prophet drew his information, news and provisions, representing his commands and prohibitions, from these customary laws, which he found in his milieu. He was influenced by them, and incorporated them into his book, which he authored, and into his practices and statements, which he aired to his Companions, and became a major part of his legislations.
We do not deny the existence of such provisions and laws, resulting from the customs of the pagans in Islamic legislation. It would not harm the Prophet to maintain the suitable laws, whether regulated acts of worship or transactions, as long as these provisions fit with the philosophy of Islamic law, in order to achieve its purposes for which it was revealed. We cannot conclude from their retention the influence of the Prophet by them, considering that they are matters he drew from his environment, and not revealed by Allah to him in His impervious book. If the matter had been otherwise, he would have maintained all the other pagan laws and customs, and not have prohibited some of them and permitted some others. But, legislation always takes into account the interests of people and subjects, in the interests of whom they have been initiated. The suitable provisions remain, and the inappropriate ones are abolished, due to their conflict with the interest of the community.
Islam retained many of the pagan customs and legislations, because: they are suitable for application. They are not the subject of criticism from the community. They fulfil the interests of those for whom these provisions were initiated. When it abolished the inappropriate ones among them, it took into consideration these divine teachings, which brought the Mohammedan message to eliminate exploitation, corruption and injustice in its diverse forms and colours. It refined Hajj rituals by abolishing the circumambulation of the nude, removed the idols and cultivated marriage. It retained the correct system, which is harmonious with human nature, and abolished the inappropriate among it, that leads to the mix up in lineages and sow hatred and enmity between the members of the society and the divorce system, and initiated legislation that safeguards women's right to alimony and custody.
All these legislations, whether acts of worship or transactions, were initiated to organize the Muslim community, which seeks to achieve equality and love among the members of the human society as a whole. We cannot just accept, through them, the suspicions of the orientalists; that maintaining and approving them means they form the sources of the Holy Quran, and the Islamic legislations emanating from the other sources of legislation) (3).
The approach of effect and influence pursued by the orientalists in Islamic studies, does not lead to valid scientific results. There is nothing wrong with the effect and influence, in terms of realism and methodology, but their use in an arbitrary form leads to stripping Islam of its sound principles and foundations, and this is what is rebuffed, scientifically and objectively.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(1) The Civilization of the Arabs, p. 382.
(2) Principles of Jurisprudence, p. 193.
(3) Criticism of the orientalistic discourse (1/275-276)




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  مشاركة رقم : 9  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-07-2012 الساعة : 12:28 PM

Episode 10: Refuting the calumny set by Goldziher and those who followed him (2-5)







The second aspect: Goldziher claimed that the Arabs did not come up with this concept and its practical applications; because it was found beforehand with the pagan Arabs ... From thence, the attachment of the Muslims to the Sunnah is like the attachment of the Arabs to the traditions of their ancestors...to the end of what he said.
Goldziher, with this statement of his, intends as usual to render what is Islamic to internal and external factors, so that he denies it every originality, renewal, or innovation.
(We do not deny that pagan Arabs were following their ancestors, worshiping their deities, guided by the traditions of their ancestors and holding fast to their beliefs and idols; because they found their fathers assiduously devoted to them, applying those traditions and guided by their footsteps. But there is disparity between the concept of Sunnah in that era and its concept in the Islamic era. It is not a set of amended old Arabic views as Goldziher said, but took its concept counterfactually to the traditions of the pagan Arabs; because it has become a legislative source, having its probativeness in the determination of provisions, and its source became divine, due to it being issued from Allah, but related in the Messenger’s own words, and because it addressed topics and issues, which treat problems and concepts of the new religion, and because it was issued as divine commands one is not permitted to deviate from, unlike the pagan Arabs who can deviate from the ways of their ancestors. Obedience of the Messenger in what he says, does, or decides is a religious duty the Muslims has no escape from turning away from. Therefore, the concept of Sunnah in the two eras is different and completely disparate. The pagans stick to the traditions of their ancestors in view of fanaticism, and the Muslims follow the Sunnah of their Prophet in view of worship).
The inference of (Goldziher) to the Hadith of the Messenger, which calls the Muslims to follow the ways of those who came before them, etc ... He had doubted this Hadith at first; because he said of it: (attributed to the Prophet) and did not say: (the Prophet said), and he misinterpreted it secondly, because the intention of the Prophet was not to call the Muslims to cling to the traditions of their pagan ancestors, but a call to stick to the Sunnah of the Prophet and the footsteps of his noble Companions, and not to differ and disunite in the future, not to dissociate oneself from the community (of Muslims) and to avert sedition as much as possible. The Prophet told of all these matters in other Statements (1), and urged Muslims to adhere to the proper Sunnah, join the opinion of the community, avoid discord and dispute, no matter what, and obey the person in position of trust and authority, so as not to divide the opinion of the community and the strength of the Muslims goes forth in a scatter.
That confirmation of his was an announcement from his part of what will occur in his nation from separation and difference, and urged them to avoid them. It is understood from this Hadith also, a call upon the Muslims to cling to the Sunnah of the Prophet and that of his Companions, so as not to imitate the Jews, the Christians, the Romans, the Persians and other nations; and from here was the unsound inference of (Goldziher) to this Hadith in this context (2).
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(1) There are those, which Abu Dawood narrated in his Sunan (4597): (Even though those before you, from the people of the Book, split according to seventy-two denomination, this religion with split into seventy-three: seventy-two of which are in the hell fire and one in Paradise, which is the community (of Muslims).
(2) Criticism of the Orientalist discourse (1/412-413).




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  مشاركة رقم : 10  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:04 PM

Episode 11: Refuting the calumny set by Goldziher and those who followed him (3-5)




The third aspect: The claim of (Goldziher) that the following of the Muslims to the Sunnah is like the following of the pagans to the practices of their ancestors, is a premature corroboration; because he intended to emphasize that the Arab nature in following the practices of the ancestors, their ways and traditions have not changed in the early period of Islam. But it is a type of imprint in the Arab psyche, established within them over the ages, and stigmatized with fanaticism. They do not permit stepping aside away from it, whatever its nature may be.

This statement has no basis in terms of realism; because when the Muslims obey the Sunnah, it is because they are commanded to do so, considering that it is a revelation expressed through the words of the Prophet, it establishes the legal laws and rules they must follow, and given that it is confirming, explaining and elucidating to the Holy Quran (1).

The Almighty said: (O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Apostle, if you do believe in Allah and the Last Day) [An Nisa’: 59].

And reference to Allah is the reference to the Holy Book, and reference to the Prophet is the reference to him in his life and to his Sunnah after his death (2).

The Almighty said: (whoever obeys the Apostle, obeys Allah) [An Nisa’: 80]. And the Almighty said: (So take what the Apostle assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you) [Al Hashr: 7].

Obedience of the Honourable Prophet is to observe his orders and to shun his prohibitions, and obedience of the Apostle is from the obedience to Allah, for He selected him and chose him as a conveyor on His behalf.

Therefore - as Shaykh Ahmad Shakir says -: "Following the Sunnah of the Prophet - peace be upon him – for the Muslims was not in keeping with the tradition of following the fathers. Allah had deplored it severely for the infidels, threatened for it considerably, and commanded people to follow the truth wherever it may be, use their minds in reflection about the cosmos and its effects and critically discern the correct evidence from the false one. The eagerness of the Muslim about the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah, was but following the command of Allah in the Quran: (You have indeed in the Apostle of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)) [Al Ahzab: 21] (then let those beware who withstand the Apostle's order, lest some trial befall them, or a grievous penalty be inflicted on them.) [An Nur: 63]. (And We have sent down unto you (also) the Message; that you may explain clearly to men what is sent for them) [An Nahl: 44], and other commands from Allah in his book, which any Muslim is not ignorant of, and following the command of the Messenger of Allah himself, in the numerous authentic Statements, and in what has been proven in practice through recurrence ...

This topic has been researched at length by eminent scholars, in which they excelled, and did not even leave a single statement, or almost. The books of Sunnah, books of fundamentals and others are extensive in that, and the fair researcher is able to discern the aspect of truth. It suffices to refer to two books, in which there is conviction to those who wished to: the book "The Message" by Imam Ash-Shaafi’i and the book "Ar-Rawdh Al Baasim Fidh-dhabbi ‘An Sunnati Abil-Qaasim" by the arch-scholar Mohammed bin Ibrahim, the Yemeni Minister. I saw that the author of the article did not make reference in it, from beginning to end, to an Arab or Islamic source, he consulted in his research, and this is odd! (3).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(1) See: Ibid (1/407).

(2) ‘Al Muwaafaqaat’: (4/14).

(3) The Encyclopaedia of Islam (13/101- 402), abridged.




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كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:08 PM

Episode 12: Refuting the calumny set by Goldziher and those who followed him (4-5)





The fourth aspect: The conclusion of (Margolioth) that the meaning of the Sunnah in the beginning of Islam "was not a familiar custom": is a conclusion drawn according to inclination, with its contravention of all the texts he cited to prove what he sees as conclusion.

Dr. Al A’dhami has cited his texts with which he made his inference and his commentary on it, saying: (we see the word (the Sunnah of the Prophet) - peace be upon him – more cited in the previous texts than any other expression. This expression has been used in texts that relate to the third Successor Othman, and perhaps there was in his noble conduct, in which he differs from his predecessors, an effect in that, even though the accusations directed at him were always vague. It seems clear that the second source of Islamic legislation up to that time was not anything specific, but it is that which was a familiar custom, supported by the authority until it became an element integrated in the persona of the Prophet, peace be upon him".

He was pursued by Dr. Al A’dhami, when he said: "Although the previous texts focused wholly or mainly on: the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him -, the Sunnah of His Prophet, the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet, and pursuant to the Quran and the Sunnah, we see (Margolioth) trying hard to hide the truth and shifting it to what his whims dictated to him. He alleges that the second source of legislation in that time was not specified, and that the concept of Sunnah is that which was customarily followed in the environment, although there is not what may support his in any way.

Whoever is looking for the truth and claims to follow the scientific method in his research, he would necessarily be assisted by texts combined for the sake of explaining some of them with the use of some others, so as not to fall into such confusion and contradiction.

If we accept, for the sake of argument, that the word Sunnah used to be given initially to what was known and familiar in the Islamic community; and this is not possible except in very rare cases, where the word is stated in conjunction with Muslims, or the like. This does not mean that these things have been attributed thereafter to the Prophet - peace be upon him - or, called later on the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him.

Then this research revolves around the expression of the word Sunnah and not around the idea of following the example of the Prophet, peace be upon him, for obedience of the Prophet - peace be upon him - and following his guidance is prescribed on the Muslims by Quranic text - as we have seen previously - and this obedience is the essence, and it does not affect that, if the word (Sunnah) was assigned to this or not, because what concerns us here is the prescription of his obedience – peace be upon him – by whatever designation it may take.

Therefore, these allegations cannot be accepted as long as they are not based on reasonable arguments, whether in what Goldziher alleged in the explanation of the (Sunnah) that it is (a pagan term) that Islam used, or the view of Margolioth that its meaning in the early period was (customary), or what Schacht arrived at in his study that its meaning is (the traditions of the community), or (the prevailing customs); because those allegations fundamentally contravene what is indicated by peremptory texts, which explain each other.

Ahmad narrated, with an authentic chain of narration, on the authority of Saalim, he said: Abdullah ibn Omar used to pass legal rulings according to what Allah Almighty revealed concerning the permit to do Tamattu’ (progressing from the lesser pilgrimage “Umrah” to the greater pilgrimage “Hajj” during the Hajj period), and what the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – initiated in this regard. People say to Ibn Omar: How can you go against your father while he had forbidden that?!

Abdullah says to them: Woe to you! Do you not fear Allah?! If Omar had forbidden that aspiring to do good from it, seeking through it completion of the Umrah, you have not forbidden when Allah Had permitted it, and the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – acted according to it. Is the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – more worthy that you should follow his Sunnah, or is it the practice of Omar?! Omar did not tell you that Umrah during the months of Hajj pilgrimage is forbidden, but he said: "The most complete Umrah is the one you perform as Ifraad (individualisation: performing the greater pilgrimage first, followed by the lesser one) during the months of Hajj (1).

This saying from Abdullah ibn Omar: " Is the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – more worthy that you should follow his Sunnah, or is it the practice of Omar?!” adjudicated in this issue, where it differentiated between two very different issues. It proved for the first one the right of following, and denied it to the other, in case of conflict, to show that the Sunnah which is followed in this case, is the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him.

If the prevailing custom or the traditions of the community are the Sunnah, so how do we then explain this saying of Ibn Omar? (1).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(1) The Musnad of Ahmad, together with the Tahqeeq (Ascertainment) of Ahmed Shaker (8/61, No. 5700).

(2) Studies in the prophetic Hadith (1/9-11).




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كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:09 PM

Episode 13: Refuting the calumny set by Goldziher and those who followed him (5-5)


The fifth aspect: The allegation that the word Sunnah was not specific about the way of the Prophet - peace be upon him - in the area of legal matters, except at the end of the second century AH, is a false allegation; because its specification had already been stabilized in the time of the Prophet, peace be upon him, the era of the Companions and the followers afterwards, which we have previously mentioned and protracted in citing examples for it. What overhauled the term Sunnah at the end of the second century was that Islamic scholars laid down concepts for the term Sunnah, consistent with the type of scientific research they intend in their study of the life of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. Those concepts did not go beyond being scientific terms used to help each scholar clarify their desired objective from studying the life of the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him.
Jurists, for example, since their purpose from studying the life of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – was to learn about the evidence for legal provisions, and as they had subdivided the legal provisions relating to the acts of those charged with responsibility, into: duty, forbidden, recommended, disliked and permissible, they defined the term Sunnah according to what is consistent with their purpose, so they said : (the Sunnah is what has been proven after the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - without presumption or necessity).
Since the purpose of the scholars of the principles of jurisprudence from studying the life of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – was to learn of the legal rules that support the independent interpreters of legal sources in deducing legal provisions, they defined the term Sunnah as: (It is that which has been transmitted from the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – from utterance, action or endorsement). While scholars of Hadith, their purpose from the study and research in the life of the Prophet - peace be upon him – was the absolute following and emulation of his example, even in his movements and stillness, and accordingly tended to collecting whatever has been transmitted from the Prophet - peace be upon him - and assimilating it, and all that which relates to his life, and defined the word Sunnah in light of that general purpose that it is (that which has been transmitted from the Prophet - peace be upon him - from utterance, action, endorsement, physical or moral attribute, before the mission – such as worshipping alone in the cave of Hira’ - or after it).

Therefore, it becomes clear that the orientalists and their students neglected this fact and ignored, and claimed fallaciously that the term Sunnah did not particularize as the way of the Prophet - peace be upon him - except at the end of the second century AH.




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  مشاركة رقم : 13  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:11 PM

Episode 14 Linguistic meanings on which the enemies of Islam focus (1-2)

Secondly: Among the linguistic meanings the enemies of Islam focus on in their definition of the Sunnah, is its meaning contained in the sense way. They then define the prophetic Sunnah as the practical way or the practical process, while his sayings, accounts and attributes - peace be upon him - are not of the Sunnah. Setting the term Hadith or Sunnah on that is, in their opinion, a terminological novelty from the part of the orators, unbeknown to the language, and is not used in its literature; thus alleged Mahmoud Abu Rayah (1) in his book (Lights on the prophetic Sunnah) (2) in succession to Dr. Tawfeeq Sidqi (3).
This, too, says Dr. Eng. Mohammed Shahrour (4) in his book (The book and the Quran: a contemporary reading): (What has been termed the Sunnah of the Prophet is but the life of the Prophet - peace be upon him - as a prophet and a human being who lived his life in reality, even at the heart of it, and not in the world of illusion).
Elsewhere he says: (from here comes the wrong definition, in our view, of the Prophetic Sunnah that it is all of what is issued from the Prophet - peace be upon him – as saying, action, order, prohibition or endorsement. In the knowledge that this definition for the Sunnah is not that of the Prophet - peace be upon him - himself, and is therefore subject to discussion and give and take, and this definition was a reason in the mummification of Islam, knowing that the Prophet - peace be upon him - and his companions did not define the Sunnah this way, and the actions of Omar ibn Al-Khattab confirm this) (5).
Niazi Izz Ad-Deen (6) says: (men of religion in the third century AH knew the Sunnah, and they added to it prescripts that are of their own assiduity. They said in its definition: "it is all that has been traced back to the Prophet - peace be upon him - as utterance, action, endorsement, moral or personal character, or comportment, whether that was before the mission - like his meditation in the cave of Hira’ - or after it". This expanded definition, which came in an era ulterior to that of the Prophet - peace be upon him - and his Companions, has brought calamity to Islam. In another placement, he says: (though most of those who introduced the sayings of the Prophet - peace be upon him -, his actions and comportments into the religion, they did it while knowing they are doing what is forbidden, and fall into sin. But, whims and Satan were stronger than belief in that period, so Satan did what he wanted) (7).


__________________________________________________ _______

(1) Mahmoud Abu-Rayah: an Egyptian writer, who was affiliated to Al Azhar in his early youth. When he moved to the secondary Azhar stage, he failed to pass more than once. He worked as corrector of typographic errors at a newspaper in his hometown, then a clerk at the Municipality until he was made to retire. Among his collections, in which he slandered the Sunnah and the Companions: ‘Lights on the Sunnah’ and ‘The Tale of the Mohammedan Discourse’, and ‘Sheikh Almudheirah (Abu Hurayrah)’. See: ‘The Sunnah and its Stance in Legislation’ by Dr. As-Sibaa’i p. 466.
(2) Lights on the prophetic Sunnah, p. 39.
(3) Dr Tawfeeq Sidqi: He is Dr Mohamed Tawfeeq Sidqi; a physician at the Prison Services in Cairo. He wrote articles in the magazine Al-Manar, entitled "Islam is the Quran alone". He died in 1920. Sheikh Mohammed Rashid Ridha interpreted his work in the magazine Al-Manar, volume 483/21 and subsequent ones. See: the magazine Al-Manar, volume 11/774.
(4) Mohammed Shahrour: A contemporary Syrian writer. He holds a doctorate in engineering from the National University of Ireland in Dublin. His works include: ‘The Book and the Quran: A Contemporary Reading’, and ‘Islam and Belief: A System of Values’, and ‘The State and the Society’.
(5) The Book and the Quran: A Contemporary Reading. p. 546-548.
(6) Niazi Izz Ad-Deen: A contemporary Syrian writer, emigrated to America, from his writings: ‘A Warning from the Sky’, and ‘The Religion of the Sultan’, in which he claimed that the hallowed Sunnah has been put by the Imams of the Muslims among the Jurists and orators in order to establish the sovereignty of the Sultan Mu’awiyah - may Allah be pleased with him - and Muslims’ scholars stridden on their path to this day.
(7) A warning from the heaven, p. 40 111.




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  مشاركة رقم : 14  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:14 PM

Episode (15) Linguistic meanings on which the enemies of Islam focus (2-2)

Thirdly: Among the linguistic meanings they focus on in their scepticism towards the hallowed Sunnah, its meaning revealed in the Quran in the sense of command of Allah – the Almighty –, His prohibitions and all other provisions, and His way, and they say: there is no Sunnah apart from the Way of Allah – the Almighty – which is mentioned in His Mighty Book, and that it is impossible for the Messenger of Allah to have a Way, and for Allah – the Almighty – to have a Way, then the Apostle would associate himself with Almighty Allah.
Concerning this, Mohammed Najib (1) says in his book (The Prayer): The Quran and the verses contained therein is the Way of Allah, which He instigated and prescribed as a framework for existence, and Allah Himself followed; for it is the Way of Allah...
It is not plausible for the Messenger to have a way, and for Allah to have a Way, then the Apostle would associate himself with Allah, and both of them would have a special Way, which is impossible to happen from a believer and from a Messenger in particular. It is not plausible for a person, to whom Allah Has given the book, the wisdom and the prophecy that he leaves the rule of Allah and His Way, and requests of people that they follow what he instigates as provisions. That, if it ever happens, is but arrogance in the land and transcendence over Allah. Allah Almighty says: (It is not (possible) that a man, to whom Allah Has given the Book, and Wisdom, and the prophetic office, should say to people: "Be my worshippers rather than Allah's": on the contrary (He would say) "Be worshippers of Him Who is truly the Cherisher of all: For you have taught the Book and you have studied it earnestly) (Al ‘Imran: 79), (But when a warner came to them, it has only increased their flight (from righteousness). On account of their arrogance in the land and their plotting of Evil, but the plotting of Evil will hem in only the authors thereof. Now are they but looking for the way the ancients were dealt with? But no change will you find in Allah's way (of dealing), and no turning off will you find in Allah's way (of dealing). (Fatir: 42, 43). This underlines the need to return to the Book of Allah, for it is alone the collection of the way of Allah (2).
In that, too, Ahmed Subhi Mansour (3) says in his book (The Class of Punishment for Apostasy), defining the real Sunnah, by saying: (The Way of Allah the Almighty is the Sunnah of His Messenger, peace be upon him...). Almighty Allah sends down the Law as revelation and the Messenger conveys it and implements it, and the Prophet would be the first of people in obedience and following to the commands of Allah. Almighty Allah commanded the Prophet to say: (I follow but that which is revealed to me) (Al Ahqaf: 9). Belief in the Messenger means belief in all that which descended on him of the Quran, and belief that he followed that revelation and applied it, and he was the first of people to believe it and implement it thereof (4).
Qaasim Ahmad (5) says in his book (Re-evaluation of the Hadith): It is by looking at the use of the words Sunnah and Hadith in the Quran, which gives us interesting information, that we find that the word (Sunnah) refers in the Quran to the order, or the divine law, and to the paradigm of the previous nations which met their fate. The Quran did not indicate that the Sunnah is the comportment of the Prophet, and these two uses are inferred to by the following two verses:
(Such has been the practice (approved) of Allah already in the past: no change will you find in the practice (approved) of Allah) (Al Fath: 23). (Say to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from Unbelief), their past would be forgiven them; but if they persist, the punishment of those before them is already (a matter of warning for them)) (Al Anfal: 38).
The term "Hadith" has been used in the Quran with the meaning "news", "narratives", "message" and "thing". It has been mentioned thirty-six times in different linguistic placements, none of which refers to what is known as the prophetic Hadith. In contrast, it has been mentioned in ten placements from manifest verses referring to the Quran and strongly excluding any discourse besides the Quran, of which these verses: (Allah has revealed the most beautiful Message in the form of a Book, consistent with itself) (Az Zumar: 23), (But there are, among men, those who purchase idle tales, without knowledge (or meaning), to mislead (men) from the Path of Allah and throw ridicule (on the Path): for such there will be a Humiliating Penalty) (Luqman: 6) (6).
The answer to that is in many ways:
The first: the allegation of the enemies of the Sunnah in their definition of the prophetic Sunnah that it is the practical process, or the practical Sunnah, or that it is the Way of Allah Almighty. And that the definition of the Sunnah is that it is: (all that which is issued by the Prophet - peace be upon him – from utterance, action, endorsement, or character ....), a terminology introduced by the orators and was not known to the Prophet - peace be upon him - or his Companions – may Allah be pleased with them – even though this definition has been a reason in the mummification of Islam. This false assertion is indicative of what I have already mentioned, that these enemies are mingling meanings in the language, with those in the terminology, and neither care about its cognition nor its clarification, either out of ignorance, or knowingly with the intention to deceive the reader and mislead him, and cause him to call in question the probativeness of the Sunnah, and its scholars.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
(1) Mohamed Najib: A contemporary writer. Among his works (The Prayer), in which he denied the hallowed Sunnah, and claimed that prayer details have been mentioned in the Holy Quran. The book has been issued by the supporters of the Quran following a symposium, published by the Encyclopaedia of Islamic Scientific Knowledge.
(2) The Prayer, p. 276, 277.
(3) Ahmed Sobhi Mansour: graduated from Al Azhar and got an international award in history from the University. He repudiated the Sunnah, so the University cleared itself of him. He travelled to America and worked with the divinator Rashad Khalifa, lecturing at the American University in Cairo, Director of the gallery Ibn Khaldun at Moqattam. Among his compilations: ‘Prophets in the Quran’, ‘The Disobedient Muslim’, ‘The Torment of the Grave and the Bald Snake’ and ‘Why the Quran?’, under the pseudonym Abdullah Al-Khalifa. See his story with Rashad Khalifa in the two books: ‘Musaylimah at the Tucson Mosque’, and ‘Defence of the Sunnah’, the first part of the series "Islam and the Continuation of the Plot" both of which are by the honourable Professor. Dr. Taha Hbaishi.
(4) The Class of Punishment for Apostasy, p. 40.
(5) Qaasim Ahmad: a contemporary Malaysian writer and President of the Malaysian Socialist Party - formerly - author of: ‘Re-evaluation of the Hadith’, in which he denied the probativeness of the Sunnah.
(6) See: ‘Re-evaluation of the Hadith’, p. 77, 78, and his inference to this verse that the term Hadith is the Quran is an obsolete and void inference. This (idle talk) here is the fairytales and myths, see: ‘Interpretation of the Holy Quran’ by Ibn Katheer 3/441.




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  مشاركة رقم : 15  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:19 PM

Episode 16: The answer to the definitions of the enemies of Islam (of the Sunnah)

The second: that the term Sunnah has specialized in the era of the Prophet - peace be upon him - as the way – his way - peace be upon him - in conveying what has been revealed to him in terms of the elucidation of the Quran in his own words and style (Statement), action (deed) or endorsement (permission), which are in their indication in lieu of the utterance- which Muslims must follow, they should obey him and comply to him in all what he commands them, forbids them and delegated to them, as Allah the Exalted said: (So take what the Apostle assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you) [Al Hashr, 7], and as He said: (O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among you.)
[An Nisaa, 59].
The verses of the Quran in the obligation to follow the Prophet are many - peace be upon him – in what he commanded and prohibited, and the attestations abounds that the term Sunnah has been added to the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - and has specialized as the way. Among such attestations is his saying in the Statement of the three folk: (... such is my tradition. So he who does not follow my Tradition, is not from me) (1), and his saying: (keep to my Tradition) (2).
If we go beyond the time of the Prophet - peace be upon him - to the era of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them - and those who followed them in truth, we would have found that the matter had settled with them that the term Sunnah means the way of the Prophet - peace be upon him – and no other’s, and that if it was mentioned defined by (Al) and not constrained, it does but go for the way of the Prophet - peace be upon him -.
From the attestations which indicated that:
What Ibn Shihab Az-Zuhari narrated from Salem, according to his father Abdullah ibn Omar - may Allah be pleased with both of them - in his story with Al Hajjaj Ath-Thaqafi concerning the time of Friday prayers, Abdullah says to Al Hajjaj:" If you intended to follow the Sunnah, then forward the prayer, "ie: hold the prayer at the time of Hajeer, which is around the middle of the day ". Ibn Shihab said:" I said to Salem: did the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him –do it? Salem said: were they meaning by that but the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him -?" (3).
The quotation of Salem, who is a follower of great trust and one of the scholars of Medina, from the Companions that if they used the term Sunnah outright, they only intend by it the way the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him – and none other. With this clear and seemly testimony, the allegation of those enemies streams, which says that the term Sunnah did only specialize at the end the third century AH.
The third: the statement that the Sunnah is only the continuous Practical Process has no truth to it. It is rather a novel terminology whose nullity is not hidden (4), because we have previously shown that the Sunnah includes the sayings of the Prophet - peace be upon him -, his actions and his endorsements, and this is what the scholars past and present agree upon (5).
If the Sunnah is confined to the continuous Practical Process, many of verbal Statements transmitted from him- peace be upon him - would have been neglected, in all aspects of religion, in the provisions, morals and instructions (6).
And even the Practical Processes the Prophet - peace be upon him - did not persist doing or it has not been proven that he continued doing them would have been neglected, such as fasting the day of Ashura’ (7), the prayers he led people in for three nights of Ramadan only (8) and the different modalities to the opening supplication ( 9).
And setting the (term) Sunnah on the verbal Statements is not a novel terminology as they claim, but is rather a matter that is habitual from the very beginning (10).
The fourth: that the word Sunnah in all the uses - as is clear from the examples we have given – has been specializing by whom it is added to or by what it is described by, or the context in which it appears. One should observe that in all its uses, whether in language, in the Quran, or in the Statements and exploits, and neglecting that leads - as we have seen - to a big confusion.
The fifth: that the terms Sunnah and Hadith were synonymous in the time of the blessed prophecy, and the time of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them - and the time of the followers and their followers - may Allah be pleased with all of them - and the scholars of the true law (of Allah) are greed on it – this has been previously elucidated - in contrast to the claiming enemies of Islam: that the term Sunnah is other than the term Hadith, and that they should be distinct from each other.

(1) Already documented.
(2) Already documented.
(3) Sahih of Bukhari, the book of Hajj, the chapter pertaining to the combination of two prayers, N (1662).
(4) See: Al Anwaar Al Kaashifah, p. 57.
(5) See: the position of the Islamic group from the prophetic Hadith, p. 68-70. Its author quoted in it seventeen of the scholarly statements, which indicates setting the appellation Sunnah over his words, peace be upon him, his actions and endorsements.
(6) See: A defence over the Sunnah p. 291.
(7) Hadith narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad (1, 241) with the wording: (Fast the day of Ashura’ and differ from the Jews in it ...).
(8) See the Hadith in in Sahih Bukhari, the book of prayer at night, the chapter pertaining to the incitement of the Prophet peace be upon him to the night prayer, No. (1129).
(9) See: the position of the Islamic group from the prophetic Hadith, p. 57.


(10) See: A defence over the Sunnah, p. 291.




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رقم العضوية : 8411
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  مشاركة رقم : 16  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:21 PM

Episode 17: The Sunnah terminologically


The definition of the Sunnah in terminology differs according to the difference in the purposes of the scholars from their research, depending their different specialties, and the following is its definition with orators, the fundamentalists and the jurists.

The Sunnah in the terminology of the orators:
Orators have multiple definitions for the Sunnah; among these definitions:

1 – It is his sayings - peace be upon him -, his actions, his endorsements, his physical and moral qualities, and all his accounts, whether before or after the mission. This is what is widely known to the majority of orators, as though the Sunnah for them is concerned with the Marfu’ (elevated) Hadith only. As to the Mawquf (stopped) and Maqtu’ (severed), it is not.

Perhaps the supporting basis of these for the adoption of this definition is: the appellation of the Prophet - peace be upon him – of all that which he came up with, in reciprocity of the Quran with the Sunnah, such as saying in his Sermon during the Farewell Pilgrimage: (O people, I have left among you that which if you hold fast to, you shall never go astray: the Book of Allah and my Tradition) (1).
Based on this statement, many of the orators attribute, in the appellation of their books in Hadith, the name Sunnah, such as: Sunan Abu ‘Isa At-Tirmidhi, deceased in the year 279 AH, and the Sunan of Imam Abu Dawood Al-Sedgestani, deceased in the year 275 AH, and Sunan An Nisa’ee, deceased in the year 303 AH, and Sunan Ibn Majah Al Qazweeni, deceased in the year 373 AH or in the year 275 AH.

2 - It was said: it is – ie: the Sunnah - his statements - peace be upon him - his actions, his endorsements, his physical and moral attributes, and all of his accounts, whether that is before or after the mission, as well as the statements of the Companions and their actions.

Among those who adopted this statement is Imam Abu Hanifa An-Nu'man ibn Thaabit - may Allah be pleased with him - deceased in the year 150 AH, it has been reported that he said: "What came to us from the side of the companions, we followed them, and what came to us from the side of the followers, we looked to converging them."

He said: "If I do not find in the Book of Allah or the Sunnah of His Messenger, I consider the statement of his companions, whomever I wished; and I leave the statement of whomever I wished, then again, I do not step beyond their word to that of others" (1).

As if the Sunnah for Abu Hanifa is specific to the Marfu’ (narration attributed to the Prophet specifically) and Mawquf (narration attributed to a companion) only, while other than that, among the Maqtu’ (narration attributed to a successor), is not. Perhaps his basis in adopting this definition is his saying- peace and blessings of Allah be upon him -: (You ought to follow my Tradition and that of the rightly-guided, upright successors; bite upon it with your back teeth) (1).

3 - It was said: it is – ie: the Sunnah - his statements - peace be upon him -, his actions, his endorsements, his physical and moral attributes, and all of his accounts, whether before or after the mission, as well as the statements of the companions and the followers, and their actions.
Among those who adopted this definition; Al-Haafidh Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Al-Hussein, known as Al-Bayhaqi, deceased in the year 458 AH, where he called his book – in which he collected what came from the Prophet - peace be upon him - the edicts of the companions and the followers and their actions: As-Sunan Al-Kubraa, as though the Sunnah for him includes: the Marfu’ (narration attributed to the Prophet specifically), Mawquf (narration attributed to a companion) and Maqtu’ (narration attributed to a successor).
He might have based his adoption of this definition on: the fact that the companions were in contact with the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - and witnessed the revelation and descent, and that the followers intermingled with the companions, mixed with them and heard from them, so much so that their words and actions were worthy of acceptance than others, and became part of the concept of Sunnah.

__________________________________________________ _______

(1) This Statement was narrated by Maalik in Al Muwatta’ Communication, Kitab Al-Qadar (Book of Destiny), p.: 561, ed.: Ash-Sha’b, Zarqaani said in his interpretation of the Muwatta’ (4 / 246): "His communication is authentic, as Ibn Uyaynah said" and has been documented by Ibn Abd Al-Barr in At-Tamheed according to the Statement of Abu Hurayrah and that of Amr ibn Awf, and said: "This is a reputed Statement of the Prophet - peace be upon him –the scholars dispose of a reputation, which would almost obviate the chain of narration", refer to: (Fatḥ Al-Maalik with the arrangement of At-Tamheed of Ibn Abd Al-Barr on Malik’s Muwatta’ (9/282- 283), and narrated by Al-Haakim in Al-Mustadrak (No. 931), and authenticated and converged by Adh-Dhahabi".
(2) The Principles of As-Sarkhasi (1 / 313).
(3) This Statement was narrated by Al-Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Kital Al-‘Ilm (Book of Knowledge), section of what came on following the Sunnah and avoiding innovations. No (2676), and said: a sound, authentic Statement, and narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, Kitab As-Sunnah (Book of Tradition of the Prophet), the section on the adherence to the Sunnah. No (4607), and Ibn Majah in As-Sunan, the Introduction: section on following the Tradition of the rightly-guided, upright successors. No (42, 43), and Imam Ahmad in his Musnad (4 / 126, 127), all are according to the Statement of Al-‘Arbadh bin Saariyah - may Allah be pleased with him.




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  مشاركة رقم : 17  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:22 PM

Episode 18 The Sunnah terminologically (The Outweighing)


The outweighing of these definitions is the second one, which includes the statements of the companions and their actions in the Sunnah, but taking into account that when the Sunnah is designated and defined, diverted to his Sunnah - peace be upon him -, while assigning it to that which emanated from the companions, comes rather constrained. Thus, it is said (the Sunnah of the upright successors) or (the upright Sunnah) and the reason for this shift in weight is the following:
1 – That Allah – the Almighty and Majestic – endorsed the companions and the followers in the Holy Quran, so He said: (The vanguard (of Islam)- the first of those who forsook (their homes) and of those who gave them aid, and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds,- well- pleased is Allah with them, as are they with Him: for them has He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme felicity.) (1).
Ash-Shaatibi says: "the Sunnah of the companions - may Allah be pleased with them – is one to rely and refer to, in evidence for this: Allah’s tribute to them without exception (2), and their compliment with justice and what is due to it, such as His saying, Almighty: (you are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind) ( 3), and His saying: (Thus, have We made of you a nation justly balanced, that you might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves). (4).
2 - That the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - urged to take after them, he said: (You ought to follow my Tradition and that of the rightly-guided, upright successors; bite upon it with your back teeth ...) (5).
He also said: (The Children of Israel split following seventy-two sects, and my nation diverged to seventy-three, all of them in the fire except one, they said: which one is it, O Messenger of Allah? He said: that which my companions and I follow).
Our predecessors have realized the value of this Prophetic guidance, therefore decided to embrace as Sunnah, the words of the companions and their actions:
Ibn Abd Al-Barr narrated, based on his reliance on Maalik ibn Anas, he said: Omar bin Abdul Aziz said: “The Messenger of Allah- peace be upon him – and the guardians after him, instigated a set of examples to follow; adopting them amounts to trust in the Book of Allah, refinement of obedience to Allah and strength in the way of the religion of Allah. Whoever followed them, is surely guided, and whoever called upon them, is surely triumphant, and whoever violated them; has surely followed a path other than that becoming to people of faith, and Allah left him in the path he has chosen, and cast him in the Hell Fire; and what an awful refuge! "(6).
Ad- Daarimi related, based on his reliance on ‘Awn bin Abdullah bin ‘Utbah bin Mas’oud - may Allah be pleased with him – that he said: "I would not have liked that the companions of Mohammed - peace be upon him - did not disagree; if they agreed on something then one man left it, he forsook the Sunnah, and if they disagreed then one man followed the opinion of someone, he followed the Sunnah. "(7).
Ibn Abd Al-Barr narrated, based on his reliance on Saleh bin Kisan, who said: "I met with Az-Zuhari, while we were seeking knowledge, we said: let us compile the Sunnahs (precedents): so, we did write down what came from the Prophet - peace be upon him - then he said: let us write down what came from his companions for it is Sunnah. I said: It is not of the Sunnah, therefore we do not write it down, and he wrote and I did not, therefore he saved while I wasted."(8).
This is what prompted Imam Al-Bayhaqi to combine in his book "As-Sunan Al-Kubra" that which came from the Prophet - peace be upon him - and that which came from his companions and followers as their words and deeds, as if the Sunnah for him encompasses: the Mrfu’(narration attributed directly to the Prophet), Mawquf (narration attributed to the companions) and Maqtu’ (narration attributed to the followers).

3 – The training they received in matters of religious jurisprudence, so that they became better placed than others to formulate legal opinions and independent interpretation, as if what came from these as statement, formulated legal opinion or action, does not go beyond guidance by a precedent (Sunnah), or analogical reasoning about a precedent (Sunnah), so it was befitting to be within the concept of Sunnah.
As-Shaatibi said: "The majority of scholars favoured the companions when it came to weighting statements, a party among them has made statements by Abu Bakr and Omar into argument and evidence, and some of them counted the declarations of the four Successors as evidence, while some took the statements of the companions as overall argument and evidence, and each of them has a particular declaration relating to the Sunnah... It is sufficient above all: what came in the Statements regarding the duty to esteem them (the companions and the followers), to reprehend those who loathe them, and that he who loves them loves the Prophet - peace be upon him -, and he who loathes them loathes the Prophet - peace be upon him -, not owing to the fact that they saw him, or were seen in his proximity, or dialogued with him only, as there is no privilege in that, but it is due to the intensity of their devotion to him, endeavouring themselves to enact his Tradition, together with protecting and supporting him. Whoever achieved such a status, is surely well worthy to be taken as an example to follow, and his precedent be made a focal point to turn to."(9).

__________________________________________________ _______

(1) Chapter At-Taubah / 100.
(2) ie: without exception.
(3) Chapter Al-‘Imran / 110.
(4) Chapter Al-Baqarah / 143.
(5) Narrated by Abu Dawood in his Sunan, Kitab As-Sunnah, the chapter pertaining to the necessity of the Sunnah, No (4607), and Al-Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Kitab Al-‘Ilm, the chapter pertaining to what came in the adoption of the Prophetic Sunnah and avoidance of innovations, No (2676), and he said: sound and authentic. Ibn Majah in his Sunan; Al Muqaddimah: the chapter pertaining to following the Sunnah of the rightly-guided, upright Successors, No (42, 43).
(6) Jaami’ Bayan Al-‘Ilm (2 / 1176 No. 2326), and narrated by Al-Khatib in Al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (1 / 435 No. 455).
(7) Sunan Ad-Daarimi, Introduction, the chapter pertaining to the differences among jurists (1 / 151).
(8) Jaami’ Bayan Al-‘Ilm (1 / 333 No (442), with an authentic chain of narration, and narrated by Abdul Razzaq in his Musannaf (11/258-259).
(9) Al-Muwaafaqaat (4 / 456, 462, 463).




رحمك الله يا سمية

رقم العضوية : 8411
الإنتساب : Jan 1970
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شمائل غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور شمائل


  مشاركة رقم : 18  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:24 PM

Episode 19: Attack on the Sunnah: His upbringing and development (1-4)


The Arabs had been, before the advent of Islam and its noble Prophet, tribes in dispute and enemies inter-fighting, no purpose assembles them and no goal unites them. Allah has bestowed his favor upon them with this religion, so He joined by it between their hearts, united the ranks and made them brothers who love one another, collaborating and helping one another; if any of them went absent they enquired after him, and if he became impoverished they comforted him. If he were in need they aided him, and if he fell ill they visited him, and if he passed away they held a funeral for him. Their religion is advice, and their ethics are the promotion of virtue and prevention of vice. Allah the Exalted says, in gratefulness and reminding of this fact and that reality: (And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favour on you; for you were enemies and He joined your hearts in love, so that by His Grace, you became brethren; and you were on the brink of the pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus does Allah make His Signs clear to you: That you may be guided) (1), and the Almighty also says (Call to mind when you were a small (band), despised through the land, and afraid that men might despoil and kidnap you; But He provided a safe asylum for you, strengthened you with His aid, and gave you Good things for sustenance: that you might be grateful.) (2).
Ibn Katheer said: (The Almighty exhilarates His faithful servants about His favors upon them, kindness to them, where they were a few so he made them many, vulnerable and afraid so He strengthened them and supported them, poor with dependents so He sustained them with the good things, He asked them for gratitude so they obeyed him and complied with all that which He commanded them ...
Qatada said: This Arab neighborhood used to be the most humiliated among people, and the most miser in living, and hungriest of bellies, and most nude of skins, and most clearly astray. Whoever lived among them, he lived in misery, and whoever died among them, he was damned to the hell fire, they are eaten and do not eat. By Allah, we knew not a group of the present inhabitants of the earth then who were of worst status than them, until Allah brought Islam and established by it in the land, and expanded by it the provisions, and made them by it kings over the necks of people, and with Islam Allah has given what you have seen, so thank Allah for his favors, for your Lord is favor-giver who loves thanks, and the worthy of thanks are in more (favors) from Allah) (3).
Allah the Almighty did not take His prophet to His side only after Allah completed for him and his nation this religion. He sent down on him months before his death during the Farewell Pilgrimage: (Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favor upon you and chosen for you Islam as your religion) (4).
The completion of the religion was among the great favors of Allah upon this nation, and therefore the Jews used to envy the Muslims over this verse. The two Sheikhs narrated, according to Omar bin Al-Khattab - may Allah be pleased with him -, that a Jewish man said to him: "O leader of the faithful! A verse in your book you read, if upon us the assembly of Jews it descended, we would have taken that day a festival. He said: Which verse? He said: (Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed My favor upon you and chosen for you Islam as your religion) (5).
Ibn Abbas - may Allah be pleased with them – said in the interpretation of this verse: (Allah informed His Prophet - peace be upon him - and the believers that He completed the faith for them, so they would never need an increase ever. Allah has accomplished it, so He would never diminish it, and He has chosen it, so He would never rage His wrath on it) (6).
The Prophet - peace be upon him – told that he has left this nation on a clear path, no one deviates away from it but he is doomed.
According to Abu Ad-Darda’ - may Allah be pleased with him – according to the Prophet - peace be upon him – He said: (...and by Allah, I have left you such as the white path (its night and day are alike) (7), and in the statement of Al-‘Arbadh (...no one deviates from it, after me, but he is doomed) (8).


__________________________________________________ _______

(1) Surah Al-‘Imran , 103.
(2) Surah Al-Anfal, 26.
(3) ‘Umdatut-Tafseer (2, 115-116).
(4) Surah Al-Ma’idah, 3.
(5) Saheeh Bukhari, Book of Faith, the chapter pertaining to the increase and decrease of faith (45) and Saheeh Muslim, Book of Interpretation (3017).
(6) The Interpretation of Ibn Katheer (2, 12).
(7) Narrated by Ibn Majah, Introduction, the chapter pertaining to following the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah -peace be upon him- (5).
(8) Narrated by Ahmad (4, 126) and authenticated by Al Albani and his predecessor with the ensemble of his ways in “the Shadows of Paradise”. See: The Shadows of Paradise with the Book of Sunnah by Ibn Abi ‘Asim, p. 26 (47, 48, 49).




رحمك الله يا سمية

رقم العضوية : 8411
الإنتساب : Jan 1970
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شمائل غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور شمائل


  مشاركة رقم : 19  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:26 PM

Episode 20: Attack on the Sunnah: His upbringing and development (2-4)



He also confirmed to them - peace be upon him - that he had conveyed to them the message of his Lord in full, and whatever good there was but he had showed it to them, and whatever evil there was, but he had warned them about. In the statement of Abdullah bin ‘Amr he said: The Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - said: (There was no Prophet that has gone before me but had the duty to designate to his nation to what he knew was good for them and warn them against what he knew was bad for them ...)(1).
The ultimate good which he committed to the nation and recommended was holding fast to the Book and the Sunnah, for there is therein guidance and salvation. He - peace be upon him - said: (I have left among you that which if you hold fast to, you will never go astray: the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet, peace be upon him) (2).
The noble Companions have responded to this testament. They were the greatest of people in holding fast to the law (of Allah), and observing the provisions, because they perceived these meanings. They realized that religion is fulfilled and was not in need of additions, and that the Law has been shown up and became clear, and therefore was not in need for elucidation. The matter was rather in terms of compliance and following. They were such as Ibn Mas'ud - may Allah be pleased with him – described them (the best of this nation: the most righteous of hearts, the deepest of knowledge and the least in formality) (3).
People remained this way until the passions blew them away, the opinions manipulated them, the paths led them to deviation and the evil, which Allah warned from, occurred. The Almighty said: (As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you have no part in them in the least) (4).
Ibn Katheer said: (It seems that the verse is general concerning all those who parted with the religion of Allah and contravened him, for Allah sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion, and His Law is one; no disagreement in it and no separation. Those who disagree in it (and they were into sects), ie: teams, such as religious sects and creeds – which are whims and delusions - Allah has exculpated His messenger from what they are into, and this verse such as the saying of the Almighty: (The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah – and that which We have sent by inspiration to you - and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that you should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein) the verse ...

This is the straight path, which the Apostles came with: from the worship of Allah alone with no partner and the adherence to the law of the late Prophet, and other than that is but delusions and ignorance, and opinions and whims, from which the Apostles are innocent) (5).

__________________________________________________ _______

(1) Narrated by Muslim, the Book on Government, the chapter pertaining to keeping loyal to the pledge of oath to the successor in succession (1844).
(2) Narrated by Al Haakim, the Book of Science, the chapter pertaining to his Sermon - peace be upon him - in the Farewell Pilgrimage (318), and said: in its chain of narration is ‘Ikrimah and Bukhari remonstrated by it, and Ibn Abi Awys, and Muslim remonstrated by it, and all its narrators are agreed upon, and then said: He has got a witness from the statement of Abu Hurayrah, and documented in a previous instance, and Adh-Dhahabi agreed with him and said: it has an origin in the authentic.
(3) A part of a trailer narrated by Baghawi according to Ibn Mas'ud in the exegesis of the Sunnah (1, 214).
(4) Surah Al An’am, 159.
(5) ‘Umdatut-Tafseer (1, 845).




رحمك الله يا سمية

رقم العضوية : 8411
الإنتساب : Jan 1970
المشاركات : 16,376
بمعدل : 0.94 يوميا

شمائل غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور شمائل


  مشاركة رقم : 20  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:29 PM

Episode 21: Attack on the Sunnah: His upbringing and evolution (3-4)

In the Statement of Omar ibn Al-Khattab - may Allah be pleased with him - that the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - said to Aisha: (O Aisha! As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you have no part in them in the least; they are the people of heresy and the people of whims, they have no repentance. Lo! I am clear of them and they are clear of me) (1)
Heresy, following whims, non-conformity to and abiding by the rule of Allah and His Messenger, has been the evil that disturbed the purity of this nation, and caused rifts between her sons; the starting point had been the heresy of the Kharijites. The first to start it in the era of the Prophet - peace be upon him -: was an ignorant and arrogant Bedouin, who stood between the hands of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - objecting to his rule in the apportionment of money, which came from Yemen. The Companions have described to us that man, saying: (a man with sunken eyes, protruding cheeks, prominent forehead, thick beard, shaved head and of short garment). He had said to the Prophet - peace be upon him – with the tone of the commander who pretends knowing after the apportionment of the Prophet - peace be upon him – of the money: (Fear Allah!). The prophet, peace be upon him, said to him: (Woe to you! Do I not deserve most to fear Allah amongst the people of the earth?).
When he returned, the messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - looked at him and said: (From this very person's posterity, there would arise people who would recite the Quran glibly, but it would not go beyond their throats; they would glance through the teachings of Islam so hurriedly just as the arrow passes through the pray) (2).
The Arch scholar of Islam, Ibn Taymiyyah, said: (the first of heresies to appear in Islam and the most manifestly invective in the Sunan and the Trails, is the heresy of the rogue Harooris (3). The first one of them said to the Prophet - peace be upon him - to his face: Do justice, O Mohammed! For you have not done justice. The prophet - peace upon him - ordered to kill them and fight them. The Companions of the Prophet - peace be upon him - fought them with the Commander of the Faithful Ali bin Abu Taalib, may Allah be pleased with him) (4).
But the heresy of the Kharijites was soon extinguished, and people lived throughout the life of the Prophet - peace be upon him - and throughout the succession of the two Arch Successors (Abu Bakr and Omar), following the book of their Lord and treading in the steps of the Sunnah of their Prophet - peace be upon him. Heresies do not know a way to them, nor do indulgence and deepening find a way to their inner selves, apart from individual cases, which are eliminated in their infancy. By the end of the era of Uthman - may Allah be pleased with him - when the Islamic conquest spread to many countries, some of those whose hearts Islam did not conquer, due to them being new to it, and their lack of understanding thereof, embraced Islam. Also those who did not originally want Islam, but embraced it hypocritically in order to plot against Islam and its people, lurked among these. The results of that was the emergence of an armed revolution against Uthman - may Allah be pleased with him - at the hands of a band of ragtag and insolents, led by a wicked malicious Jewish person, who is Abdullah bin Saba’ Al-Humairi, which ended with the murder of the rightly-guided Successor Uthman bin ‘Affan - may Allah be pleased with him - wrongfully at the hands of these. This was the first weakness.
Then came the era of Ali - may Allah be pleased with him - where the sedition of the murder of Uthman bin ‘Affan - may Allah be pleased with him - and the subsequent wars for two heresies facing each other: the heresy of the expiatory Kharijites towards Ali - may Allah be pleased with him - and some of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them - and the heresy of the Rafidhah (the rejecters) who claim his clerical leadership and infallibility, or his prophethood or divinity, then the egression of the groups followed in succession after that:

At the end of the era of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them - during the succession of Abdul Malik bin Marwan - the heresy of the Marjanah and the Qadaria occurred. At the beginning of the era of the Followers- at the end of the Umayyad Caliphate - the heresy of the Jahamis and the Mushabbihah mutilators occurred (5).

Ibn Katheer said: (The first heresy to take place in Islam was that of the Kharijites. Their instauration was because of worldly gains, when the Prophet - peace be upon him – distributed the spoils of Huneyn, as if they saw in their rotten minds that he did not do justice in his distribution!
They surprised him with this statement. Their skeptic, who is the owner of the small loin, may Allah disembowel his waist, said: do justice, for you did not do justice! The Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - said to him: (A hopeless and a loser, you are! Does He trust me over the people of the world and you do not trust me?! When the man finished, Omar bin Al-Khattab - may Allah be pleased him -, and in another narration: Khalid bin Al Waleed, sought permission to kill him. He - peace be upon him -said: (Let him! From this very person's posterity (his type) there would emerge a people, and you would hold insignificant your prayers as compared with their prayers, your fasting compared to theirs and your recitation compared to theirs. They would glance through the teachings of Islam so hurriedly just as the arrow passes through the pray. So when you meet them, kill them, for in their killing you would get a reward for the one who kills them) (6). Then was their emergence during the days of Ali bin Abu Taalib - may Allah be pleased with him - who annihilated them at Nahrawan. Out of these, peoples and tribes then branched, views and passions, articles and many widespread doctrines. Then the Qadaria emerged, followed by Al-Mu’tazilah, then the Jahamis and other heresies about whom the Truthful and Trustworthy- peace be upon him – informed in his saying: (this nation would split into seventy-three sects, all of which are in the fire except one). They said: Who are they, O Messenger of Allah? He said: (those who follow that which my Companions and I follow) (7).

(1) Narrated by Al-Bayhaqi in the Ramifications of Faith (5/449-450), Abu Na’eem in Adornments (4/138) and At-Tabaraani in As-Sagheer (1/303) from the statement of Abu Hurayrah. Al Haythami said in Al Mujamma’ (7/22, 23). The Isnad of At-Tabaraani in As-Sagheer is good.
(2) Narrated by Muslim, The Book of Zakat, the chapter pertaining to the mention of Kharijites and their attributes (2452).
(3) The Harooris: they are the Kharijites, so named for their adherence to a place known as: Haroora’.
(4) Madjmu’ Al Fataawa (19/72).
(5) See: the book: Minhaaj As-Sunnah (6/230-233) and As-Sawaa’iq Al-Murslah (1/147 151).
(6) See: the Kharijites and their attributes in Sahih Muslim, Book of Zakat, the chapter pertaining to the mention of Kharijites and their attributes (2449-2456) and Al Musnad (616) and Ibn Hibbaan (24).
(7) ‘Umdatut-Tafseer (1/353) and the Statement is narrated by At-Tirmidhi, Book of Faith, the chapter pertaining to what came in the split of this nation (2641) and said: This Hadith is Hasan Ghareeb, and has been interpreted. We do not know it like this apart from this side.




رحمك الله يا سمية

رقم العضوية : 8411
الإنتساب : Jan 1970
المشاركات : 16,376
بمعدل : 0.94 يوميا

شمائل غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور شمائل


  مشاركة رقم : 21  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:30 PM

Episode 21: Attack on the Sunnah: His upbringing and evolution (3-4)

In the Statement of Omar ibn Al-Khattab - may Allah be pleased with him - that the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - said to Aisha: (O Aisha! As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you have no part in them in the least; they are the people of heresy and the people of whims, they have no repentance. Lo! I am clear of them and they are clear of me) (1)
Heresy, following whims, non-conformity to and abiding by the rule of Allah and His Messenger, has been the evil that disturbed the purity of this nation, and caused rifts between her sons; the starting point had been the heresy of the Kharijites. The first to start it in the era of the Prophet - peace be upon him -: was an ignorant and arrogant Bedouin, who stood between the hands of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - objecting to his rule in the apportionment of money, which came from Yemen. The Companions have described to us that man, saying: (a man with sunken eyes, protruding cheeks, prominent forehead, thick beard, shaved head and of short garment). He had said to the Prophet - peace be upon him – with the tone of the commander who pretends knowing after the apportionment of the Prophet - peace be upon him – of the money: (Fear Allah!). The prophet, peace be upon him, said to him: (Woe to you! Do I not deserve most to fear Allah amongst the people of the earth?).
When he returned, the messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - looked at him and said: (From this very person's posterity, there would arise people who would recite the Quran glibly, but it would not go beyond their throats; they would glance through the teachings of Islam so hurriedly just as the arrow passes through the pray) (2).
The Arch scholar of Islam, Ibn Taymiyyah, said: (the first of heresies to appear in Islam and the most manifestly invective in the Sunan and the Trails, is the heresy of the rogue Harooris (3). The first one of them said to the Prophet - peace be upon him - to his face: Do justice, O Mohammed! For you have not done justice. The prophet - peace upon him - ordered to kill them and fight them. The Companions of the Prophet - peace be upon him - fought them with the Commander of the Faithful Ali bin Abu Taalib, may Allah be pleased with him) (4).
But the heresy of the Kharijites was soon extinguished, and people lived throughout the life of the Prophet - peace be upon him - and throughout the succession of the two Arch Successors (Abu Bakr and Omar), following the book of their Lord and treading in the steps of the Sunnah of their Prophet - peace be upon him. Heresies do not know a way to them, nor do indulgence and deepening find a way to their inner selves, apart from individual cases, which are eliminated in their infancy. By the end of the era of Uthman - may Allah be pleased with him - when the Islamic conquest spread to many countries, some of those whose hearts Islam did not conquer, due to them being new to it, and their lack of understanding thereof, embraced Islam. Also those who did not originally want Islam, but embraced it hypocritically in order to plot against Islam and its people, lurked among these. The results of that was the emergence of an armed revolution against Uthman - may Allah be pleased with him - at the hands of a band of ragtag and insolents, led by a wicked malicious Jewish person, who is Abdullah bin Saba’ Al-Humairi, which ended with the murder of the rightly-guided Successor Uthman bin ‘Affan - may Allah be pleased with him - wrongfully at the hands of these. This was the first weakness.
Then came the era of Ali - may Allah be pleased with him - where the sedition of the murder of Uthman bin ‘Affan - may Allah be pleased with him - and the subsequent wars for two heresies facing each other: the heresy of the expiatory Kharijites towards Ali - may Allah be pleased with him - and some of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them - and the heresy of the Rafidhah (the rejecters) who claim his clerical leadership and infallibility, or his prophethood or divinity, then the egression of the groups followed in succession after that:

At the end of the era of the Companions - may Allah be pleased with them - during the succession of Abdul Malik bin Marwan - the heresy of the Marjanah and the Qadaria occurred. At the beginning of the era of the Followers- at the end of the Umayyad Caliphate - the heresy of the Jahamis and the Mushabbihah mutilators occurred (5).

Ibn Katheer said: (The first heresy to take place in Islam was that of the Kharijites. Their instauration was because of worldly gains, when the Prophet - peace be upon him – distributed the spoils of Huneyn, as if they saw in their rotten minds that he did not do justice in his distribution!
They surprised him with this statement. Their skeptic, who is the owner of the small loin, may Allah disembowel his waist, said: do justice, for you did not do justice! The Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - said to him: (A hopeless and a loser, you are! Does He trust me over the people of the world and you do not trust me?! When the man finished, Omar bin Al-Khattab - may Allah be pleased him -, and in another narration: Khalid bin Al Waleed, sought permission to kill him. He - peace be upon him -said: (Let him! From this very person's posterity (his type) there would emerge a people, and you would hold insignificant your prayers as compared with their prayers, your fasting compared to theirs and your recitation compared to theirs. They would glance through the teachings of Islam so hurriedly just as the arrow passes through the pray. So when you meet them, kill them, for in their killing you would get a reward for the one who kills them) (6). Then was their emergence during the days of Ali bin Abu Taalib - may Allah be pleased with him - who annihilated them at Nahrawan. Out of these, peoples and tribes then branched, views and passions, articles and many widespread doctrines. Then the Qadaria emerged, followed by Al-Mu’tazilah, then the Jahamis and other heresies about whom the Truthful and Trustworthy- peace be upon him – informed in his saying: (this nation would split into seventy-three sects, all of which are in the fire except one). They said: Who are they, O Messenger of Allah? He said: (those who follow that which my Companions and I follow) (7).

(1) Narrated by Al-Bayhaqi in the Ramifications of Faith (5/449-450), Abu Na’eem in Adornments (4/138) and At-Tabaraani in As-Sagheer (1/303) from the statement of Abu Hurayrah. Al Haythami said in Al Mujamma’ (7/22, 23). The Isnad of At-Tabaraani in As-Sagheer is good.
(2) Narrated by Muslim, The Book of Zakat, the chapter pertaining to the mention of Kharijites and their attributes (2452).
(3) The Harooris: they are the Kharijites, so named for their adherence to a place known as: Haroora’.
(4) Madjmu’ Al Fataawa (19/72).
(5) See: the book: Minhaaj As-Sunnah (6/230-233) and As-Sawaa’iq Al-Murslah (1/147 151).
(6) See: the Kharijites and their attributes in Sahih Muslim, Book of Zakat, the chapter pertaining to the mention of Kharijites and their attributes (2449-2456) and Al Musnad (616) and Ibn Hibbaan (24).
(7) ‘Umdatut-Tafseer (1/353) and the Statement is narrated by At-Tirmidhi, Book of Faith, the chapter pertaining to what came in the split of this nation (2641) and said: This Hadith is Hasan Ghareeb, and has been interpreted. We do not know it like this apart from this side.




رحمك الله يا سمية

رقم العضوية : 8411
الإنتساب : Jan 1970
المشاركات : 16,376
بمعدل : 0.94 يوميا

شمائل غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور شمائل


  مشاركة رقم : 22  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:31 PM

Episode 22: Attack on the Sunnah: His upbringing and development (4-4)

The seriousness of the band of Kharijites - the first of the bands to emerge – is that it rejects the command of the Prophet - peace be upon him - with insolence and intrepidity, and contravenes what he came up with. This contradicts what they allege that they believe in him as a messenger from the Lord of the Worlds. The credence in him as a messenger requires his obedience; this is why when the first one of them said to the prophet - peace be upon him -: (Do justice! For you have not done justice!). This saying of his was a justification from him to betray and do injustice, in what Allah has entrusted him of money! How does that reconcile with the claim of this person who says that he believes in him as a messenger from the Lord of the Worlds?! That is why the Prophet - peace be upon him – said to the likes of this man: (Does the One in heaven trust me and you do not?).
These (Kharijites) have rejected the established recurrent Sunan (duties), claiming that they contravene the Quran, such as their rejection of the provision of stoning, their denial of the minimal amount (prescribed amount set by jurisprudence) which warrants chopping off the hand of a thief. They claim that the married adulterer is flogged and not stoned, and that the thief gets his hand chopped off, whether (he stole) a little or a lot.
The Arch scholar of Islam, Ibn Taymiyyah, says: (They do not see following the Sunnah, which they think contravenes the Quran, such as in stoning, the minimum amount in the case of theft, and other than that. Therefore, they went astray) (1), and this rejection of the Sunnah is not because of their denial of the truth of transmission from the Messenger, peace be upon him, but it is a rejection of the utterance of the Messenger, peace be upon him.
The Arch scholar of Islam, Ibn Taymiyyah, says concerning that: (The Kharijites made it permissible on the Messenger himself to be unjust and strays in his Sunnah, and did not enjoin his obedience and his following, but believed him in what he conveyed of Quran, without that which he legislated from the Sunnah, which contravenes- as they claim – the evident meaning of the Quran) (2).
Those who came after them from the deniers of the Sunnah were more cunning than them. They did not proclaim as these did by rejecting the Sunnah, but they started to trick for that by various means.
The Arch scholar of Islam, Ibn Taymiyyah, says: (the majority of the people of heresy outside the Kharijites follow them on this. They see: that the Messenger - peace be upon him - if he stated unlike their discourse, they would not have followed him, as ‘Amr bin ‘Ubeyd tells on the Statement of the truthful trustworthy, but they refute the accusation from themselves melancholically: by denying the transmission, or: by interpreting the transmitted. They sometimes contest the chain of narration, and sometimes the text (of the Hadith). Otherwise, they are neither following nor led by the reality of the Sunnah, which the Prophet - peace be upon him –came up with or even by the reality of the Quran) (3).
Those (people) have erred by refusing the Sunnah, and fell into serious errors, including: they considered Muslims infidels due to sins and evil deeds, and they deemed permissible (to shed) their blood and (take) their money, and made the house of the Muslims a house of war, and their house a house of faith. The reason for this, as the Arch scholar of Islam says, is: (their break away from the Sunnah and their making that which is not a bad deed, a bad deed, and that which is not a good deed, a good deed... In this partakes the innovations which contravene the Sunnah. The one that says it, must prove that which the Sunnah has denied and denies that which the Sunnah has proven, makes good that which it made repulsive, or make hideous that which it made good. This much may be done by some scholars by mistake in certain issues, but the people of innovation contravene the apparent narrated Sunnah) (4).

The noble Companions and those who followed them in truth had faced this band and the likes of it from among the people of innovations, so they denied them their innovations, and warned people against them.
According to Omar bin Al-Khattaab - may Allah be pleased with him – he said: "(The opinionated are the enemies of the Sunan, they failed to memorize the Hadiths, and they slipped out of their grasp to understand them, and they were embarrassed when they were asked to say: We do not know. They opposed the Sunan with their opinion, so beware of them) (5).
According to Abu Qulaabah, he said: "(Do not socialize with the people of whims, and not argue with them, for I trust not lest they submerge you in misguidance, or confuse you in the religion in some of that in which they were confused) (6).
According to Al-Hasan Al-Basri, he said: "(Do not sit with the people of whims, nor debate with them, nor hear from them) (7).
Then Allah - the Almighty - consecrated in each of the eras (someone) who stands up to these stray bands and their words on the lookout, faces their darkness with the light of truth. These are the bearers of the Sunnah. They were made aware by Allah and His Messenger of that which is stated in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger, and were enlightened by the approach of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - in their exposure of misguidance and suspicions, and the more the people of misguidance continued in their stubbornness and despotism in refusing the truth, the more the people of truth widen the response to them and expose their falsehood.
Ibn Al Madini – May Allah have mercy on him – says concerning the Statement of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him -: (There will always be a group of my nation victorious, upon the truth...), they are the people of Hadith, who committed themselves to the doctrine of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - and protect the knowledge. Without them, the Mu’tazilah, the Rafidhah, the Jahamis and the people of Irja’ (postponements) and opinion would have annihilated the people) (8).

__________________________________________________

(1) Majmoo’ Al-Fataawaa (13/208).
(2) Majmoo’ Al-Fataawaa (19/73).
(3) Majmoo’ Al-Fataawaa (19/73).
(4) Majmoo’ Al-Fataawaa (19/72).
(5) Narrated by Ibn Abd Al-Barr in Jaami’ Bayaan Al-‘Ilm (2001), and Al-Khateeb in Al-Faqeeh Walmutafaqqih (479).
(6) Narrated by Ad-Daarimi (1/120) and Al-Aajuri in Ash-Sharee’ah p.56.
(7) Narrated by Al-Laalkaa’ee in Sharh Usul I’tiqaad Ahl-Assunnah (1/133).
(8) – Miftaahul Jannah, p. 48.




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  مشاركة رقم : 23  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:33 PM

Episode 23: The debate of Imam Ash-Shaafi’i (204 AH) against the rejecters of the Sunnah.

The first one to be known that he debated with the rejecters of the Sunnah, sustained the argument with them and the response to them, is Imam Ash-Shaafi’i - may Allah have mercy on him - he mentioned in his main book (Kitaab Jamaa’ Al-‘Ilm, the chapter pertaining to the story of the saying of the party who rejected all reports). Ash-Shaafi’i mentioned there a dialogue, which took place between him and a member of this band (who is ascribed to be knowledgeable in the doctrine of his fellows).
And here is the summary of the argument of those who rejected all reports, as told by Ash-Shaafi’i about them: that the Quran came to explain everything. When the Hadiths brought new provisions, which were not in the Quran, that was in opposition from the presumptive proof, which are the Hadiths, to the peremptory proof, which is the Quran; and the presumptive does not have the strength to oppose the peremtory. When the Sunnah came to confirm the rule of the Quran, the following was for the Quran and not for the Sunnah. When it came to elucidate that which the Quran summed up, that was to elucidate the peremptory, which renders infidel the one who denies a single letter from it, by means of the presumptive, which renders infidel the one who denies its confirmation, and thus it is incumbent that they accept the Hadiths if they were recurrent, because they imply the definite by their confirmation. They, however, do not admit them as axioms, for they are rather presumptive for them too, because they came from single presumptive methods; so the probability of lying in their narration stands, even if they were a great crowd) (1).
The answer of Imam Shafi'i – may Allah have mercy on him – about the suspicions of those can be summarized as follows:

1 - That Allah has enjoined upon us to follow His Messenger and this is universal including those who were in his time, and all that will come after that. There is no way to that for those who had not seen the Prophet - peace be upon him – except through the Hadiths, so Allah Has commanded us to follow them and accept them, because that which the duty is not complete without it, is a duty.
2 – That there must be acceptance of the Hadith in order to know the provisions of the Quran itself, for the abrogating (provisions) and the abrogated (provisions) can only be known by reference to the Sunnah.

3 - That there are provisions agreed upon among all scholars and Muslim communities as a whole, even those who deny the probativeness of the Sunnah, and that is such as the number of obligatory prayers, the number of their rak'ahs, the minimum amount of possession liable for payment of the Zakat (Almsgiving) and others. There was no way of knowing them and proving them, except from the Sunnah.

4 - That the legislation had come to specify the peremptory with a presumptive, as in the testimony on murder and wealth, for the sanctity of the self and wealth are unequivocal. The testimony of two (people) has been accepted in them, and is presumptive without argument.

5 - That the reports, even though they may admit mistakes, illusion and lies, but the eventuality following ascertainment, the sureness about the uprightness of the narrator, comparing the narratives with accounts of his fellow narrators has become less than the probability stated in testimonies, particularly if the backup of the narrative is a text from the Book or the Sunnah, then the probability would be non-existent.

6 - Ash-Shaafi’i – may Allah the Almighty have mercy on him - did not mention, in this emplacement, the answer to their saying: Allah revealed the Book as explanation to everything, and mentioned it in many emplacements of his book Ar-Risaalah.
His answer was: that Allah did not make mention in the book about each of the subsets of the Law, but elucidated the fundamentals of the Law, its sources, regulations and general principles. Among the fundamentals He elucidated: the necessity to practice the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him, as in the verse: (So take what the Apostle assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you) (2).

From the opening chapter of the book (Ar-Risaalah) by Imam Ash-Shaafi’i, he finds that he responded lengthily to those who refuse argue by the Sunnah, or parts of it, like those who refused to argue by reports from single narrators (3).
__________________________________________________

(1) – Consult Kitaabul Umm (7/250). See also: Defense of the Prophetic Hadith, p. 101, Al-Adhwaa’ As-Sunniyyah ‘Ala Madhaahib Raafidhiy Al-Ihtijaaj Bissunnah Annabawiyyah p.24, 25 and following pages.
(2) – Surah Al Hashr, 7.
(3) - See: Al-Adhwaa’ As-Sunniyyah, p. 27.




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رقم العضوية : 8411
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شمائل غير متواجد حالياً عرض البوم صور شمائل


  مشاركة رقم : 24  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:37 PM

Episode 24: Ibn Qutaybah follows Ash-Shaafi’i in the response to the enemies of the Sunnah.


Ibn Qutaybah follows Ash-Shaafi’i in the response to the enemies of the Sunnah.
We have already gone through the interlocution of Imam Ash-Shaafi’i concerning those who deny the Sunnah. Then came the third century AH, in which of Imam Ash-Shaafi’i died on the fourth year of its beginning, to mark the golden age for the compilation of the Sunnah, its purification and its chronicling, where the Musnad of Imam Ahmad has been chronicled, the two Sahihs, the four books of the Sunan and other books.
Nevertheless, that century also included the attempted destruction of the hallowed Sunnah. If we look for example to the book (Ta’weel Mukhtalif Al-Hadith) (Interpretation of Conflicting Narrations) by Ibn Qutaybah, who died in 276 AH, we see that he made his book on the response to the enemies of the people (adherents) of the Sunnah, and the combination between the reports, which they alleged were waning and conflicting, and the reply to what they set forth from calumnies, with regard to certain comparable reports, or the issue to start with. Ibn Qutaybah does not content himself to replying to the calumnies and to clarify the misunderstanding of those who kindle those calumnies, but talks about the persons themselves, who kindled them, so that the reader grasps the cause of their hostility towards the people (adherents) of Hadith.
He cited An-Nadh-Dhaam, and says: An-Nadh-Dhaam existed as a cunning, sly person from the Shuttaar (a crime syndicate which emerged in Baghdad in 201 AH). He goes out drunk and comes back drunk, spends the night sipping it flowingly, embraces defilements, commits obscenities and shameful acts, etc...
He cited that An-Nadh-Dhaam broke away from the consensus of the community, slandered Abu Bakr, Omar, Ali, Ibn Mas’ood and Abu Hurayrah. Ibn Qutaybah then commented, following this, by saying: This is what he says - An-Nadh-Dhaam - in the Companions of the Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him - and may He be pleased with them, as if he did not hear of the statement of Almighty Allah in His Holy Book: (Mohammed is the Apostle of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other...) to the end of the Surah (1), and did not hear of the statement of the Almighty: (Allah was pleased with the Believers when they swore allegiance to you under the Tree: He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down Tranquillity to them...) to the end of the verse (2).
After talking about An-Nadh-Dhaam and his response to him, he says: "Then we come to the word of Abu Hudheil Al-‘Allaaf, we find him a liar and a scandalmonger, etc... (3), thus continued Ibnd Qutaybah in his book.
__________________________________________________ _______

(1) Al-Fath, 29.
(2) Al-Fath, 18.
(3) See: Ta’weel Mukhtalif Al-Hadith (Interpretation of Conflicting Narrations), p. 17/42.




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رقم العضوية : 8411
الإنتساب : Jan 1970
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  مشاركة رقم : 25  
كاتب الموضوع : شمائل المنتدى : English Forum قديم بتاريخ : 10-08-2012 الساعة : 01:41 PM

Episode 25: Ash-Shaatiby responds also to the enemies of the Sunnah.

Ash-Shaatiby responds also to the enemies of the Sunnah.
Of those who defended the Sunnah and responded to its enemies, particularly those who relate the events restricting themselves to the Holy Book, is Imam Ash-Shaatiby , and that is in his worthy book (Al Muwaafaqaat) (The Conformities). He had said in them: ((the restriction to a book is the view of a people who do not have a share in happiness, transgressors against the Sunnah, since they relied upon that on which it has been founded, in that the book has the explanation of everything. They alienated the provisions of the Sunnah, which led them to disconnect from the Community, and the interpretation of the Quran contrary to what Allah has revealed)) (1).
And Ash-Shaatiby - may Allah have mercy on him - understood the purpose these were aiming for. Ash-Shaatiby had related several trails from the Predecessors inciting the confrontation of those who argue in the Quran with the Sunnah, as Omar bin Al-Khattaab - may Allah be pleased with him- said: (there will come a people who will argue with you by means of vagueness in the Quran, so face them up with the Hadiths, for the adherents to the Sunan know best the Book of Allah).

The statement of Abu Ad-Dardaa’ - may Allah be pleased with him-: (among that which I fear for you is the fault of a scholar and the argument of the one who professes belief in the Quran), and the statement of Ibn Mas'ood - may Allah be pleased with him -: (You will find people inviting you to the book of Allah, which they threw away behind their backs, so then stick to (religious) knowledge, and beware of coming up with a heresy, and beware of overstating, and keep to the old (ways) (2).
Ash-Shaatiby reported that scholars contextualize these texts to validate the interpretation of the Quran according to judgments, with presentation of the Sunan. He then determined that which the rejecters of the Sunnah aim for. He said: (a lot of the heretics alienated the Hadiths and interpreted the Book of Allah contrary to its interpretation, so they misled and were misled). Their aim is not the sanctification of the Book of Allah, but the manipulation of the Book of Allah.
Since the Sunnah has been a fence that protects the Quran from manipulation, they directed their efforts to shun it, in order to achieve validation through the Quran of their corrupt views without denial. Those whose intention was good and they think, in all honesty with themselves that by shunning the Sunnah they are venerating the Book, are wrong. This path leads to ignorance about the Book and its alienation.
Ash-Shaatiby – may the mercy of Almighty Allah be upon him, says: - (the Sunnah elucidates the comprehensive, restricts the absolute and details the comprehensive. It takes a lot of Quranic expressions out of their evident meaning in the origin of the language. If they were presented, and he followed the seeming expressions merely in pursuit of whims, such a consideration has become erratic in his view, ignorant about the book, stray in misguidance, wherein he is not guided to the truth, as minds do not realize the benefits and detriments in worldly behaviors, but very little, and in the ones relating to the Hereafter, is altogether far removed) (3).

_________________________________________________

(1) See: Al-Muwaafaqaat (The Conformities), 3, 11.
(2) See: Al-Muwaafaqaat (The Conformities), 3, 12.
(3) See: Al-Muwaafaqaat (The Conformities), 3, 14.



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